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Measuring Financial Inclusion: A Multidimensional Index

Author

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  • Noelia Camara
  • David Tuesta

Abstract

We rely on demand and supply-side information to measure the extent of financial inclusion at country level for eighty-two developed and less-developed countries. We postulate that the degree of financial inclusion is determined by three dimensions: usage, barriers and access to financial inclusion. Weights assigned to the dimensions are determined endogenously by employing a two-stage Principal Component Analysis. Our composite index offers a comprehensive measure of the degree of financial inclusion, easy to understand and compute.

Suggested Citation

  • Noelia Camara & David Tuesta, 2014. "Measuring Financial Inclusion: A Multidimensional Index," Working Papers 1426, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:bbv:wpaper:1426
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chakravarty, Satya R. & Pal, Rupayan, 2013. "Financial inclusion in India: An axiomatic approach," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 813-837.
    2. Era Dabla-Norris & Yixi Deng & Anna Ivanova & Izabela Karpowicz & Filiz D Unsal & Eva VanLeemput & Joyce Wong, 2015. "Financial Inclusion; Zooming in on Latin America," IMF Working Papers 15/206, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Ben Lockwood, 2004. "How Robust is the Kearney/Foreign Policy Globalisation Index?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 507-523, April.
    4. Mishra, SK, 2007. "A Comparative Study of Various Inclusive Indices and the Index Constructed by the Principal Components Analysis," MPRA Paper 3377, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Tatiana Didier & Sergio L. Schmukler, 2014. "Emerging Issues in Financial Development : Lessons from Latin America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 16387, November.
    6. Mandira Sarma, 2008. "Index of Financial Inclusion," Finance Working Papers 22259, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    7. James Steiger, 1979. "Factor indeterminacy in the 1930's and the 1970's some interesting parallels," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 44(2), pages 157-167, June.
    8. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2007. "Reaching out: Access to and use of banking services across countries," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 234-266, July.
    9. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora, 2012. "Measuring financial inclusion : the Global Findex Database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6025, The World Bank.
    10. Noelia Camara & David Tuesta & Pablo Urbiola Ortun, 2015. "Extending access to the formal financial system: the banking correspondent business model," Working Papers 1510, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
    11. Mandira Sarma, 2008. "Index of Financial Inclusion," Working Papers id:1575, eSocialSciences.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. International Monetary Fund, 2016. "Guatemala; Selected Issues and Analytical Notes," IMF Staff Country Reports 16/282, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Era Dabla-Norris & Yixi Deng & Anna Ivanova & Izabela Karpowicz & Filiz D Unsal & Eva VanLeemput & Joyce Wong, 2015. "Financial Inclusion; Zooming in on Latin America," IMF Working Papers 15/206, International Monetary Fund.
    3. repec:ibn:ibrjnl:v:11:y:2018:i:7:p:120-129 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Cyn-Young Park & Rogelio Mercado Jr., 2018. "Financial Inclusion: New Measurement and Cross-Country Impact Assessment," Working Papers wp29, South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre.
    5. Dyna Heng & Anna Ivanova & Rodrigo Mariscal & Uma Ramakrishnan & Joyce Wong, 2016. "Advancing Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 16/81, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Noelia Camara & David Tuesta & Pablo Urbiola, 2015. "Extendiendo el acceso al sistema financiero formal: el modelo de corresponsales bancarios," Working Papers 1511, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
    7. repec:ine:journl:v:44:y:2017:i:53:p:130-144 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Katsiaryna Svirydzenka, 2016. "Introducing a New Broad-based Index of Financial Development," IMF Working Papers 16/5, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Keshav Sood & Shrabani Mukherjee, 2016. "Triggers and Barriers for ‘Exclusion’ To ‘Inclusion’ in the Financial Sector: A Country-Wise Scrutiny," Working Papers 2016-154, Madras School of Economics,Chennai,India.
    10. Akin, Tarik & Iqbal, Zamir & Mirakhor, Abbas, 2016. "The composite risk-sharing finance index: Implications for Islamic finance," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 18-25.
    11. David Martínez Turégano & Alicia García Herrero, 2018. "Financial Inclusion, Rather Than Size, Is The Key To Tackling Income Inequality," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 63(01), pages 167-184, March.
    12. Rodrigo Lluberas & Joaquín Saldain, 2014. "Paper or plastic? Payment instrument choice in Uruguay," Documentos de trabajo 2014007, Banco Central del Uruguay.
    13. Izabela Karpowicz, 2016. "Financial Inclusion, Growth and Inequality: A Model Application to Colombia," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(6), pages 68-89, June.
    14. Noelia Camara & David Tuesta & Pablo Urbiola Ortun, 2015. "Extending access to the formal financial system: the banking correspondent business model," Working Papers 1510, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial inclusion; Principal Component Analysis; inclusion barriers;

    JEL classification:

    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance

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