Correcting the Bias in the Concentration Index when Income is Grouped
The problem introduced by grouping income data when measuring socioeconomic inequalities in health (and health care) has been highlighted in a recent study. We reexamine this issue and show there is a tendency to underestimate the concentration index at an increasing rate when lowering the number of income categories. This bias results from a form of measurement error and we propose two correction methods. Firstly, the use of instrumental variables (IV) can reduce the error within income categories. Secondly, through a simple formula for correction that is based only on the number of groups. We compare the performance of these methods using data from 15 European countries and the United States. We find that the simple correction formula reduces the impact of grouping and always outperforms the IV approach. Use of this correction can substantially improve comparisons of the concentration index both across countries and across time.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2009|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: +61 2 6125 3807|
Phone: +61 2 6125 3807
Fax: +61 2 6125 0744
Web page: http://rse.anu.edu.au/cepr.php
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chen, Zhuo & Roy, Kakoli, 2009. "Calculating concentration index with repetitive values of indicators of economic welfare," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 169-175, January.
- Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 2000. "Chapter 34 Equity in health care finance and delivery," Handbook of Health Economics, in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 34, pages 1803-1862 Elsevier.
- Tomson Ogwang, 2003. "Bounds of the Gini Index Using Sparse Information on Mean Incomes," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 49(3), pages 415-423, 09.
- Sarabia, J. -M. & Castillo, Enrique & Slottje, Daniel J., 1999. "An ordered family of Lorenz curves," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 43-60, July.
- Gerdtham, U. -G. & Johannesson, M. & Lundberg, L. & Isacson, D., 1999. "A note on validating Wagstaff and van Doorslaer's health measure in the analysis of inequalities in health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 117-124, January.
- Adam Wagstaff, 2005. "The bounds of the concentration index when the variable of interest is binary, with an application to immunization inequality," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(4), pages 429-432.
- Kakwani, Nanak & Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 1997. "Socioeconomic inequalities in health: Measurement, computation, and statistical inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 87-103, March.
- Kristina Burström & Magnus Johannesson & Finn Diderichsen, 2005. "Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(8), pages 831-850.
- Doorslaer, Eddy van & Jones, Andrew M., 2003. "Inequalities in self-reported health: validation of a new approach to measurement," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 61-87, January.
- Teresa Bago d’Uva & Eddy Van Doorslaer & Maarten Lindeboom & Owen O’Donnell & Somnath Chatterji, 2006.
"Does reporting heterogeneity bias the measurement of health disparities?,"
Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers
06/03, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
- Teresa Bago d'Uva & Eddy Van Doorslaer & Maarten Lindeboom & Owen O'Donnell, 2008. "Does reporting heterogeneity bias the measurement of health disparities?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 351-375.
- Teresa Bago d'Uva & Eddy van Doorslaer & Maarten Lindeboom & Owen O'Donnell & Somnath Chatterji, 2006. "Does Reporting Heterogeneity bias the Measurement of Health Disparities?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 06-033/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Clarke, Philip M. & Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Johannesson, Magnus & Bingefors, Kerstin & Smith, Len, 2002. "On the measurement of relative and absolute income-related health inequality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 55(11), pages 1923-1928, December.
- Wagstaff, Adam, 2002.
"Inequality aversion, health inequalities, and health achievement,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2765, The World Bank.
- Wagstaff, Adam, 2002. "Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 627-641, July.
- Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2005. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521848053, December.
- Wagstaff, Adam & Van Doorslaer, Eddy & Watanabe, Naoko, 2001.
"On decomposing the causes of health sector inequalities with an application to malnutrition inequalities in Vietnam,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2714, The World Bank.
- Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy & Watanabe, Naoko, 2003. "On decomposing the causes of health sector inequalities with an application to malnutrition inequalities in Vietnam," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 207-223, January.
- Jens Gundgaard & Jørgen Lauridsen, 2006. "A decomposition of income-related health inequality applied to EQ-5D," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 7(4), pages 231-237, December.
- Tom Van Ourti, 2004. "Measuring horizontal inequity in Belgian health care using a Gaussian random effects two part count data model," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 705-724.
- Villasenor, JoseA. & Arnold, Barry C., 1989. "Elliptical Lorenz curves," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 327-338, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:auu:dpaper:599. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.