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Equal Risk Pricing and Hedging of Financial Derivatives with Convex Risk Measures

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  • Saeed Marzban
  • Erick Delage
  • Jonathan Yumeng Li

Abstract

In this paper, we consider the problem of equal risk pricing and hedging in which the fair price of an option is the price that exposes both sides of the contract to the same level of risk. Focusing for the first time on the context where risk is measured according to convex risk measures, we establish that the problem reduces to solving independently the writer and the buyer's hedging problem with zero initial capital. By further imposing that the risk measures decompose in a way that satisfies a Markovian property, we provide dynamic programming equations that can be used to solve the hedging problems for both the case of European and American options. All of our results are general enough to accommodate situations where the risk is measured according to a worst-case risk measure as is typically done in robust optimization. Our numerical study illustrates the advantages of equal risk pricing over schemes that only account for a single party, pricing based on quadratic hedging (i.e. $\epsilon$-arbitrage pricing), or pricing based on a fixed equivalent martingale measure (i.e. Black-Scholes pricing). In particular, the numerical results confirm that when employing an equal risk price both the writer and the buyer end up being exposed to risks that are more similar and on average smaller than what they would experience with the other approaches.

Suggested Citation

  • Saeed Marzban & Erick Delage & Jonathan Yumeng Li, 2020. "Equal Risk Pricing and Hedging of Financial Derivatives with Convex Risk Measures," Papers 2002.02876, arXiv.org, revised Sep 2020.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:2002.02876
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    File URL: http://arxiv.org/pdf/2002.02876
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Andrzej Ruszczyński & Alexander Shapiro, 2006. "Conditional Risk Mappings," Mathematics of Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 31(3), pages 544-561, August.
    2. François, Pascal & Gauthier, Geneviève & Godin, Frédéric, 2014. "Optimal hedging when the underlying asset follows a regime-switching Markov process," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(1), pages 312-322.
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    7. Heston, Steven L, 1993. "A Closed-Form Solution for Options with Stochastic Volatility with Applications to Bond and Currency Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 327-343.
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    9. Guo, Ivan & Zhu, Song-Ping, 2017. "Equal risk pricing under convex trading constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 136-151.
    10. Carr, Peter & Geman, Helyette & Madan, Dilip B., 2001. "Pricing and hedging in incomplete markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 131-167, October.
    11. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. "The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    12. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
    13. Dimitris Bertsimas & Leonid Kogan & Andrew W. Lo, 2001. "Hedging Derivative Securities and Incomplete Markets: An (epsilon)-Arbitrage Approach," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 49(3), pages 372-397, June.
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