The role of the information set for forecasting - with applications to risk management
Predictions are issued on the basis of certain information. If the forecasting mechanisms are correctly specified, a larger amount of available information should lead to better forecasts. For point forecasts, we show how the effect of increasing the information set can be quantified by using strictly consistent scoring functions, where it results in smaller average scores. Further, we show that the classical Diebold-Mariano test, based on strictly consistent scoring functions and asymptotically ideal forecasts, is a consistent test for the effect of an increase in a sequence of information sets on $h$-step point forecasts. For the value at risk (VaR), we show that the average score, which corresponds to the average quantile risk, directly relates to the expected shortfall. Thus, increasing the information set will result in VaR forecasts which lead on average to smaller expected shortfalls. We illustrate our results in simulations and applications to stock returns for unconditional versus conditional risk management as well as univariate modeling of portfolio returns versus multivariate modeling of individual risk factors. The role of the information set for evaluating probabilistic forecasts by using strictly proper scoring rules is also discussed.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published in Annals of Applied Statistics 2014, Vol. 8, No. 1, 595-621|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://arxiv.org/|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 1995.
"Comparing Predictive Accuracy,"
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
American Statistical Association, vol. 13(3), pages 253-63, July.
- Francis X. Diebold & Robert S. Mariano, 1994. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," NBER Technical Working Papers 0169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tom Doan, . "DMARIANO: RATS procedure to compute Diebold-Mariano Forecast Comparison Test," Statistical Software Components RTS00055, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Engle, Robert, 2002. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation: A Simple Class of Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 339-50, July.
- Giacomini, Raffaella & White, Halbert, 2003.
"Tests of Conditional Predictive Ability,"
University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series
qt5jk0j5jh, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Jeremy Berkowitz & Peter Christoffersen & Denis Pelletier, 2005.
"Evaluating Value-at-Risk models with desk-level data,"
Working Paper Series
010, North Carolina State University, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2006.
- Jeremy Berkowitz & Peter Christoffersen & Denis Pelletier, 2011. "Evaluating Value-at-Risk Models with Desk-Level Data," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2213-2227, December.
- Peter Christoffersen & Jeremy Berkowitz & Denis Pelletier, 2008. "Evaluating Value-at-Risk Models with Desk-Level Data," CREATES Research Papers 2009-35, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987.
"A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
- Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
- Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986. "A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix," NBER Technical Working Papers 0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Acerbi, Carlo & Tasche, Dirk, 2002.
"On the coherence of expected shortfall,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1487-1503, July.
- Tae-Hwy Lee & Yong Bao & Burak Saltoglu, 2006. "Evaluating predictive performance of value-at-risk models in emerging markets: a reality check," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 101-128.
- Francis X. Diebold, 2012.
"Comparing Predictive Accuracy, Twenty Years Later: A Personal Perspective on the Use and Abuse of Diebold-Mariano Tests,"
NBER Working Papers
18391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francis X. Diebold, 2012. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy, Twenty Years Later: A Personal Perspective on the Use and Abuse of Diebold-Mariano Tests," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-035, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
- repec:taf:jnlbes:v:30:y:2012:i:1:p:1-17 is not listed on IDEAS
- Tsyplakov, Alexander, 2011. "Evaluating density forecasts: a comment," MPRA Paper 31184, University Library of Munich, Germany.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1404.7653. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.