On the coherence of expected shortfall
Expected Shortfall (ES) in several variants has been proposed as remedy for the defi-ciencies of Value-at-Risk (VaR) which in general is not a coherent risk measure. In fact, most definitions of ES lead to the same results when applied to continuous loss distributions. Differences may appear when the underlying loss distributions have discontinuities. In this case even the coherence property of ES can get lost unless one took care of the details in its definition. We compare some of the definitions of Expected Shortfall, pointing out that there is one which is robust in the sense of yielding a coherent risk measure regardless of the underlying distributions. Moreover, this Expected Shortfall can be estimated effectively even in cases where the usual estimators for VaR fail. Key words: Expected Shortfall; Risk measure; worst conditional expectation; tail con-ditional expectation; value-at-risk (VaR); conditional value-at-risk (CVaR); tail mean; co-herence; quantile; sub-additivity.
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- Dirk Tasche, 2001. "Conditional Expectation as Quantile Derivative," Papers math/0104190, arXiv.org.
- Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell & Uryasev, Stanislav, 2002. "Conditional value-at-risk for general loss distributions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1443-1471, July.
- Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
- Carlo Acerbi & Claudio Nordio & Carlo Sirtori, 2001. "Expected Shortfall as a Tool for Financial Risk Management," Papers cond-mat/0102304, arXiv.org.
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