Foreign Production: The Weak Link in Tests of the Internationalization Process Model
This paper reviews empirical tests of two of the main implications of the internationalization model: that firms, as they gain international experience, enter markets of increasing psychic distance and that they enter a given market with successive entry modes that reflect increasing commitment. One problem with much of this literature is that it fails to control for economic variables that affect the choice of target market and that of entry mode. Another is the overemphasis on exports, and the relative neglect of foreign production. Yet, because it is more risky and less reversible, foreign production would seem to provide a better test of the model.
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- Gabriel R G Benito & Geir Gripsrud, 1992. "The Expansion of Foreign Direct Investments: Discrete Rational Location Choices or a Cultural Learning Process?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(3), pages 461-476, September.
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- Stan D Reid, 1981. "The Decision-Maker and Export Entry and Expansion," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 12(2), pages 101-112, June.
- John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
- Warren J Bilkey & George Tesar, 1977. "The Export Behavior of Smaller-Sized Wisconsin Manufacturing Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 93-98, March.
- Warren J Bilkey, 1978. "An Attempted Integration of the Literature on the Export Behavior of Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 9(1), pages 33-46, March.
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