A holistic approach to internationalisation
Previous research into internationalisation has viewed it as being an export-led phenomenon. Although this is a phenomenon that extends to other activities such as licensing and manufacture overseas, it is usually considered from an 'outward' perspective. In this paper it is argued that internationalisation is no longer just an outward-driven activity and that firms also become internationalised by undertaking import-led activities and activities in which 'inward' and 'outward' activities are 'linked', as happens with strategic alliances, cooperative manufacture and countertrade. The paper demonstrates that a majority of firms engage in 'inward' and 'linked' international activities as well as 'outward' activities. It also illustrates that the factors that predict outward internationalisation also predict 'inward' and, to a lesser extent, 'linked' internationalisation. The paper questions the traditional view that internationalisation should be progressive and incremental and explores the issue of de-internationalisation and its role in the long-term internationalisation of the firm. The implications of the above conceptual approach to internationalisation are discussed briefly and illustrated in the case of government programs of export assistance, born global firms, firms operating on a global basis and firms undertaking international business in the electronic environment.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 10 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/bibliographic|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kumcu, Erdogan & Harcar, Talha & Kumcu, M. Ercan, 1995. "Managerial perceptions of the adequacy of export incentive programs : Implications for export-led economic development policy," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 163-174, February.
- Stan D Reid, 1981. "The Decision-Maker and Export Entry and Expansion," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 12(2), pages 101-112, June.
- Philip J Rosson & I David Ford, 1982. "Manufacturer-Overseas Distributor Relations and export Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 13(2), pages 57-72, June.
- Daniel C Bello & Nicholas C Williamson, 1985. "Contractual Arrangement and Marketing Practices in the Indirect Export Channel," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 16(2), pages 65-82, June.
- O'Farrell, Patrick N. & Wood, Peter A., 1994. "International market selection by business service firms: Key conceptual and methodological issues," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 243-261, September.
- Warren J Bilkey & George Tesar, 1977. "The Export Behavior of Smaller-Sized Wisconsin Manufacturing Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 93-98, March.
- Reid, Stan, 1984. "Information acquisition and export entry decisions in small firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 141-157, June.
- Claude L Simpson & Duane Kujawa, 1974. "The Export Decision Process: An Empirical Inquiry," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 5(1), pages 107-117, March.
- Warren J Bilkey, 1978. "An Attempted Integration of the Literature on the Export Behavior of Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 33-46, March.
- Cavusgil, S. Tamer & Naor, Jacob, 1987. "Firm and management characteristics as discriminators of export marketing activity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 221-235, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:10:y:2001:i:1:p:25-49. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.