IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Working Paper 312 - Quality Homes for Sustainable Malaria Prevention in Africa



Using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 8 African countries, among the top 10 countries with the highest malaria cases, accounting for 87% of malaria incidence cases in Africa, we analyze the impact of housing quality and the usual malaria prevention measures on malaria incidence among children under 5 years old. First, we investigate the potential correlation between malaria incidence and the quality of housing materials. Secondly, using OLS, two-stage least squares and Poisson regression, we estimate the marginal effects of housing quality on the incidence of malaria. The results can be summarized in four points. (i) The statistical analysis results show a substantial correlation between housing quality and the incidence of malaria. We found 8 percentage points lower rate of incidence among children living in houses constructed with improved materials than those in houses with poor quality materials. (ii) We also found that it is not only the physical characteristic of homes that matters, having good sanitation is associate with lower malaria incidence, with a total difference of 10 and 4 percentage points compared to those with less improved toilet facility and poor-quality drinking water respectively. (iii) An improvement in the overall housing quality leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of malaria among children under 5 years old. Explicitly, an improvement from the first percentile measure of housing quality to the 50th percentile leads to a 32% reduction in the number of malaria cases among children under age-five. In other words, if one improves the housing quality of poorer households to the national average, and keeping other factors constant, the number of malaria cases will drop by 50%. (iv) For both groups of households, those that use mosquito bed nets and those who use insecticide as means of preventing malaria, the results show that improved housing quality complements bed nets and insecticides. As housing quality improves, the role of the two preventives become smaller and smaller.

Suggested Citation

  • Tiguéné Nabassaga & El-Hadj Bah & Issa Faye, 2019. "Working Paper 312 - Quality Homes for Sustainable Malaria Prevention in Africa," Working Paper Series 2438, African Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:adb:adbwps:2438

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jean-Claude Berthélemy & Josselin Thuilliez, 2014. "The economics of malaria in Africa," Post-Print hal-01045213, HAL.
    2. Eric Maskin & Célestin Monga & Josselin Thuilliez & Jean-Claude Berthélemy, 2019. "The economics of malaria control in an age of declining aid," Nature Communications, Nature, vol. 10(1), pages 1-5, December.
    3. Hargreaves, J.R. & Boccia, D. & Evans, C.A. & Adato, M. & Petticrew, M. & Porter, J.D., 2011. "The social determinants of tuberculosis: from evidence to action," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 101(4), pages 654-662.
    4. El-hadj M. Bah & Issa Faye & Zekebweliwai F. Geh, 2018. "Housing Market Dynamics in Africa," Palgrave Macmillan Books, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-1-137-59792-2, March.
    5. Jean-Claude Berthelemy & Josselin Thuilliez, 2014. "The economics of malaria in Africa," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01045213, HAL.
    6. Saurabh Singhal & Yao Pan, 2015. "Income and Malaria: Evidence from an agricultural intervention in Uganda," WIDER Working Paper Series 092, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Chaves, Luis Fernando & Ramírez Rojas, Melissa & Delgado Jiménez, Sandra & Prado, Monica & Marín Rodríguez, Rodrigo, 2021. "Housing quality improvement is associated with malaria transmission reduction in Costa Rica," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Eric Maskin & Célestin Monga & Josselin Thuilliez & Jean-Claude Berthélemy, 2019. "The economics of malaria control in an age of declining aid," Nature Communications, Nature, vol. 10(1), pages 1-5, December.
    2. Maria Kuecken & Josselin Thuilliez & Marie-Anne Valfort, 2015. "Does malaria control impact education? Evidence from Roll Back Malaria in Africa," Working Papers halshs-01099524, HAL.
    3. Jean-Claude Berthélemy & Victor Doubliez & Josselin Thuilliez, 2015. "Prevention or treatment? The introduction of a new antimalarial drug in Angola," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 15089, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    4. Thiongane, Mamaye, 2015. "Le Coût Economique du paludisme au Sénégal [The Economic Cost of Malaria in Senegal]," MPRA Paper 89063, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2016.
    5. Orkoh, Emmanuel & Annim, Samuel Kobina, 2014. "Source and Use of Insecticide Treated Net and Malaria Prevalence," MPRA Paper 60558, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Dec 2014.
    6. repec:hal:pseose:halshs-01099524 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Elisa Sicuri & Francesco Ramponi & Iris Lopes-Rafegas & Francisco Saúte, 2022. "A broader perspective on the economics of malaria prevention and the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2," Nature Communications, Nature, vol. 13(1), pages 1-3, December.
    8. Sara Balestri, 2020. "Inside the Policy Process: Using Textual Analysis to Measure People-Centered Approach in Tuberculosis Policy-Making," Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, Vita e Pensiero, Pubblicazioni dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, vol. 128(2), pages 147-172.
    9. Tahira Kootbodien & Kerry Wilson & Nonhlanhla Tlotleng & Vusi Ntlebi & Felix Made & David Rees & Nisha Naicker, 2018. "Tuberculosis Mortality by Occupation in South Africa, 2011–2015," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 15(12), pages 1-10, December.
    10. Barbara Reis-Santos & Priya Shete & Adelmo Bertolde & Carolina M Sales & Mauro N Sanchez & Denise Arakaki-Sanchez & Kleydson B Andrade & M Gabriela M Gomes & Delia Boccia & Christian Lienhardt & Ethel, 2019. "Tuberculosis in Brazil and cash transfer programs: A longitudinal database study of the effect of cash transfer on cure rates," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(2), pages 1-18, February.
    11. Fasil Wagnew & Kefyalew Addis Alene & Matthew Kelly & Darren Gray, 2023. "Geospatial Overlap of Undernutrition and Tuberculosis in Ethiopia," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 20(21), pages 1-15, October.
    12. Alasdair Reid, 2023. "Closing the Affordable Housing Gap: Identifying the Barriers Hindering the Sustainable Design and Construction of Affordable Homes," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(11), pages 1-27, May.
    13. Kustanto, Andi, 2020. "The role of socioeconomic and environmental factors on the number of tuberculosis cases in Indonesia," OSF Preprints ad3uv, Center for Open Science.
    14. Fink, Günther & Venkataramani, Atheendar S. & Zanolini, Arianna, 2021. "Early life adversity, biological adaptation, and human capital: evidence from an interrupted malaria control program in Zambia," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    15. Cingolani, Luciana & Thomsson, Kaj & de Crombrugghe, Denis, 2015. "Minding Weber More Than Ever? The Impacts of State Capacity and Bureaucratic Autonomy on Development Goals," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 191-207.
    16. Brendon Stubbs & Kamran Siddiqi & Helen Elsey & Najma Siddiqi & Ruimin Ma & Eugenia Romano & Sameen Siddiqi & Ai Koyanagi, 2021. "Tuberculosis and Non-Communicable Disease Multimorbidity: An Analysis of the World Health Survey in 48 Low- and Middle-Income Countries," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(5), pages 1-15, March.
    17. Emeka Emmanuel Obioha, 2021. "Mission Unaccomplished: Impediments to Affordable Housing Drive in Addressing Homelessness in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 10(8), pages 1-16, August.
    18. Do Huy Thiep & Nguyen Thi Cam Nhung, 2018. "Impacts of accessing extension on agricultural production profit: Empirical evidence from the Vietnam Access to Rural Households Survey," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2018-104, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    19. Lilias Makashini & Ephraim Munshifwa & Yewande Adewunmi, 2021. "Brownfield Regeneration: A possible Panacea to Zambia’s Housing Deficit and Urban Decay?," AfRES 2021-012, African Real Estate Society (AfRES).
    20. Farman Ullah Khan & Asim ur Rehman & Faiz Ullah Khan & Khezar Hayat & Amjad Khan & Nafees Ahmad & Jie Chang & Usman Rashid Malik & Yu Fang, 2022. "Assessment of Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes among Drug-Resistant TB Patients: A 6-Year Retrospective Study from Pakistan," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(3), pages 1-13, January.
    21. Anna Odone & Amelia C Crampin & Venance Mwinuka & Simon Malema & J Nimrod Mwaungulu & Lumbani Munthali & Judith R Glynn, 2013. "Association between Socioeconomic Position and Tuberculosis in a Large Population-Based Study in Rural Malawi," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 8(10), pages 1-1, October.

    More about this item


    Malaria; Housing quality; indoor intervention; IV regression; marginal plot. JEL classification: I18; P25; B23;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • P25 - Political Economy and Comparative Economic Systems - - Socialist and Transition Economies - - - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
    • B23 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Econometrics; Quantitative and Mathematical Studies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:adb:adbwps:2438. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Adeleke Oluwole Salami (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.