IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this book

Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets : Trade Corridors in the 21st Century


  • Jean-François Arvis
  • Robin Carruthers
  • Graham Smith
  • Christopher Willoughby


The importance of transport corridors for trade and development, including for some of the poorest countries in the world, is widely recognized in this book. A new consensus has also emerged that reducing trade costs and improving access to corridors is not just a matter of building infrastructure. The policies that regulate transport services providers and the movement of goods along corridors are important determinants of the social rate of return on such infrastructure investment. This book avoids optimistic assumptions regarding the prospects for new high-level agreements and decisions to facilitate transit or the possible benefits from increased use of technology. Instead, the authors argue that much can be done through the implementation of readily available existing tools. The use of these tools is often hampered by not only capacity constraints; but, equally if not more important, a lack of commitment. Political economic factors in both the landlocked countries and their transit neighbors must be recognized and addressed. This book offers examples of possible implementation strategies that, while challenging, should in principle help in overcoming these political economic constraints. The main message is that to bring about efficient trade corridors governments and stakeholders should focus on properly implementing the fiscal, regulatory, and procedural principles for international transit that encourage quality-driven logistics services. The various implementation challenges are the primary focus of this book.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-François Arvis & Robin Carruthers & Graham Smith & Christopher Willoughby, 2011. "Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets : Trade Corridors in the 21st Century," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2286, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:2286

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mr. Abebe Aemro Selassie, 2008. "Beyond Macroeconomic Stability: The Quest for Industrialization in Uganda," IMF Working Papers 2008/231, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Jean-François Arvis & Gaël Raballand & Jean-François Marteau, 2010. "The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2489, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Sothea Oum, 2013. "Comment on “Lao Economy: Capitalizing on Natural Resource Exports”," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 8(1), pages 92-93, June.
    2. Craig Macphee & Peter Cook & Wanasin Sattayanuwat, 2013. "Transportation and The International Trade of Eastern and Southern Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 81(2), pages 225-239, June.
    3. Athukorala, Prema-chandra & Narayanan, Suresh, 2018. "Economic corridors and regional development: The Malaysian experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 1-14.
    4. Tan, Barney & Ng, Evelyn & Jiang, Junhui, 2018. "The process of Technology Leapfrogging: Case analysis of the national ICT infrastructure development journey of Azerbaijan," International Journal of Information Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 311-316.
    5. Vincent Nkundabaramye, 2022. "Effects of the East African Community Single Customs Territory (EACSCT) on the Movement of Goods along the Rwandan Customs Posts," Journal of Social Science Studies, Macrothink Institute, vol. 9(2), pages 115-115, December.
    6. Jorge García García & David Camilo López & Enrique Montes Uribe, 2016. "Los costos de comerciar en Colombia: aproximación basada en una comparación de precios," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 46(2), pages 75-139, December.
    7. Bakar Normizan & Ishii Yasunori, 2014. "Export Competition between Landlocked and Coastal Countries: An Analysis of Strategic Export Policies," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 804-812, November.
    8. Jerónimo Carballo & Alejandro Graziano & Georg Schaur & Christian Volpe Martincus, 2021. "The Effects of Transit Systems on International Trade," CESifo Working Paper Series 9353, CESifo.
    9. A S M Abdul Quium, 2019. "Transport Corridors for Wider Socio–Economic Development," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(19), pages 1-23, September.
    10. Ngoc Thien Anh Pham & Nicholas Sim, 2020. "Shipping cost and development of the landlocked developing countries: Panel evidence from the common correlated effects approach," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 892-920, April.
    11. Hanaoka, Shinya & Sota, Masashi & Kawasaki, Tomoya & Thompson, Russell G., 2019. "Performance of cross-border corridors in East Africa considering multiple stakeholders," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 117-126.
    12. Aggarwal, Aradhna, 2020. "The Concept, Evolution, Impacts and Critical Success Factors of Regional Economic Corridors," MPRA Paper 110706, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Nov 2021.
    13. Phill Wheat & Alexander D. Stead & Yue Huang & Andrew Smith, 2019. "Lowering Transport Costs and Prices by Competition: Regulatory and Institutional Reforms in Low Income Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(21), pages 1-19, October.
    14. Torres Martínez, Antonio José & Oliete Josa, Sergio & Magrinyà, Francesc & Gauthier, Jean-Marc, 2018. "Cost-effectiveness of enforcing axle-load regulations: The Douala-N’Djamena corridor in Sub-Saharan Africa," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 216-228.
    15. Reeg, Caroline, 2017. "Spatial development initiatives – potentials, challenges and policy lessons: with a specific outlook for inclusive agrocorridors in Sub-Sahara Africa," IDOS Studies, German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS), volume 97, number 97.
    16. Rana, Pradumna B. & Karmacharya, Binod, 2014. "A Connectivity-Driven Development Strategy for Nepal: From a Landlocked to a Land-Linked State," ADBI Working Papers 498, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    17. Patricia Sourdin & Richard Pomfret, 2012. "Trade Facilitation," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14596.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo‐Obasi, 2020. "Drivers and Persistence of Death in Conflicts: Global Evidence," World Affairs, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 183(4), pages 389-429, December.
    2. Carballo, Jerónimo & Schaur, Georg & Graziano, Alejandro & Volpe Martincus, Christian, 2016. "Transit Trade," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 7688, Inter-American Development Bank.
    3. Asongu, Simplice & Tchamyou, Vanessa & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina, 2018. "The Comparative African Economics of Governance in Fighting Terrorism," MPRA Paper 92346, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Christian Volpe Martincus, 2016. "Out of the Border Labyrinth: An Assessment of Trade Facilitation Initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 96856, February.
    5. Simplice Asongu & Rexon Nting, 2020. "The comparative economics of financial access in gender economic inclusion," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 12(2), pages 193-207, December.
    6. Asongu, Simplice & Boateng, Agyenim & Akamavi, Raphael, 2016. "Mobile Phone Innovation and Inclusive Human Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 75046, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Burgoa, Rodrigo, 2011. "Consecuencias económicas del enclaustramiento marítimo sobre las exportaciones bolivianas [Landlockedness Economic Impact upon Bolivian Exports]," MPRA Paper 59904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Patrick Plane, 2021. "What Factors Drive transport and Logistics Costs in Africa ?," Working Papers hal-03198081, HAL.
    9. Cordula Rastogi & Jean-Francois Arvis, 2014. "The Eurasian Connection : Supply-Chain Efficiency along the Modern Silk Route through Central Asia," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 18779, December.
    10. Rajeev K. Goel & Ummad Mazhar & James W. Saunoris, 2021. "Identifying the corrupt cog in the wheel: Dimensions of supply chain logistics and cross‐country corruption," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 693-709, December.
    11. Mireille NTSAMA ETOUNDI, 2014. "Impact de la rente pétrolière sur la demande des pays frontaliers du Cameroun," Working Papers 201417, CERDI.
    12. Ngoc Thien Anh Pham & Nicholas Sim, 2020. "Shipping cost and development of the landlocked developing countries: Panel evidence from the common correlated effects approach," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 892-920, April.
    13. Charles Kunaka & Gaël Raballand & Mike Fitzmaurice, 2016. "How trucking services have improved and may contribute to economic development: The case of East Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2016-152, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    14. Charles Kunaka & Robin Carruthers, 2014. "Trade and Transport Corridor Management Toolkit," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 18241, December.
    15. Asongu Simplice, 2014. "The Evolving Debate on the Effect of Foreign Aid on Corruption and Institutions in Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 14/009, African Governance and Development Institute..
    16. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The persistence of global terrorism," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/053, African Governance and Development Institute..
    17. Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "The Effects of Mobile Phone Technology, Knowledge Creation and Diffusion on Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 12(3), pages 1367-1398, September.
    18. Hoekman, Bernard & Wilson, John, 2010. "Aid for Trade: An Action Agenda Looking Forward," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, issue 25, pages 1-4, August.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "Knowledge Economy Gaps, Policy Syndromes, and Catch-Up Strategies: Fresh South Korean Lessons to Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 211-253, March.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Chris Pyke, 2019. "The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1271-1297, June.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:2286. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Tal Ayalon (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.