IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wut/journl/v2y2014p59-79id1094.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The optimal portfolio under VaR and ES

Author

Listed:
  • Henryk Gurgul
  • Artur Machno

Abstract

An analysis of the dependence structure among certain European indices (FTSE100, CAC40, DAX30, ATX20, PX, BUX and BIST) has been conducted. The main features of the financial data were studied: asymmetry, fat-tailedness (leptokurtosis), variability and mutual dependence. We have fitted a regime switching copula based model including asymmetric and fat-tailed copulas. All the indices are left-skewed and fat-tailed. Large indices are more skewed and less fail-tailed. The findings suggest that size of a market has an influence on its properties. A particular behaviour of the Turkish market suggests the importance of geographical factors. It is also suggested that the maturity of a market is insignificant in the analysis. Another important conclusion drawn from our empirical investigation is that VaR is a less exact risk measure than ES. However, the dynamics of the temporal and statistical properties of both measures are similar.

Suggested Citation

  • Henryk Gurgul & Artur Machno, 2014. "The optimal portfolio under VaR and ES," Operations Research and Decisions, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, vol. 24(2), pages 59-79.
  • Handle: RePEc:wut:journl:v:2:y:2014:p:59-79:id:1094
    DOI: 10.5277/ord140203
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ord.pwr.edu.pl/assets/papers_archive/1094%20-%20published.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.5277/ord140203?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Keith Kuester & Stefan Mittnik & Marc S. Paolella, 2006. "Value-at-Risk Prediction: A Comparison of Alternative Strategies," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 4(1), pages 53-89.
    2. Lorán Chollete & Andréas Heinen & Alfonso Valdesogo, 2009. "Modeling International Financial Returns with a Multivariate Regime-switching Copula," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 7(4), pages 437-480, Fall.
    3. Daniel Berg, 2009. "Copula goodness-of-fit testing: an overview and power comparison," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7-8), pages 675-701.
    4. Cathy Ning, 2009. "Extreme Dependence in International Stock Markets," Working Papers 008, Ryerson University, Department of Economics.
    5. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    6. Okimoto, Tatsuyoshi, 2008. "New Evidence of Asymmetric Dependence Structures in International Equity Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 787-815, September.
    7. Aas, Kjersti & Czado, Claudia & Frigessi, Arnoldo & Bakken, Henrik, 2009. "Pair-copula constructions of multiple dependence," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 182-198, April.
    8. Joe, Harry, 2005. "Asymptotic efficiency of the two-stage estimation method for copula-based models," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 401-419, June.
    9. Chollete, Lorán & de la Peña, Victor & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2011. "International diversification: A copula approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 403-417, February.
    10. Jondeau, Eric & Rockinger, Michael, 2006. "The Copula-GARCH model of conditional dependencies: An international stock market application," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 827-853, August.
    11. Hamilton, James D., 1990. "Analysis of time series subject to changes in regime," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 39-70.
    12. Billio, Monica & Pelizzon, Loriana, 2000. "Value-at-Risk: a multivariate switching regime approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 531-554, December.
    13. Ryohei Kawata & Masaaki Kijima, 2007. "Value-at-risk in a market subject to regime switching," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(6), pages 609-619.
    14. Rodriguez, Juan Carlos, 2007. "Measuring financial contagion: A Copula approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 401-423, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Henryk Gurgul & Artur Machno, 2016. "Modeling dependence structure among European markets and among Asian-Pacific markets: a regime switching regular vine copula approach," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer;Slovak Society for Operations Research;Hungarian Operational Research Society;Czech Society for Operations Research;Österr. Gesellschaft für Operations Research (ÖGOR);Slovenian Society Informatika - Section for Operational Research;Croatian Operational Research Society, vol. 24(3), pages 763-786, September.
    2. Patton, Andrew, 2013. "Copula Methods for Forecasting Multivariate Time Series," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, in: G. Elliott & C. Granger & A. Timmermann (ed.), Handbook of Economic Forecasting, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 899-960, Elsevier.
    3. BenSaïda, Ahmed, 2018. "The contagion effect in European sovereign debt markets: A regime-switching vine copula approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 153-165.
    4. Fei, Fei & Fuertes, Ana-Maria & Kalotychou, Elena, 2017. "Dependence in credit default swap and equity markets: Dynamic copula with Markov-switching," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 662-678.
    5. Patton, Andrew J., 2012. "A review of copula models for economic time series," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 4-18.
    6. Holger Fink & Yulia Klimova & Claudia Czado & Jakob Stober, 2016. "Regime switching vine copula models for global equity and volatility indices," Papers 1604.05598, arXiv.org.
    7. Chollete, Loran & Pena, Victor de la & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2009. "International Diversification: A Copula Approach," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2009/27, University of Stavanger.
    8. Ojea-Ferreiro, Javier & Reboredo, Juan C., 2021. "Exchange rates and the global transmission of equity market shocks," Working Papers 2021-05, Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Ispra site).
    9. Su, Xiaoshan & Bai, Manying & Han, Yingwei, 2021. "Robust portfolio selection with regime switching and asymmetric dependence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    10. Holger Fink & Yulia Klimova & Claudia Czado & Jakob Stöber, 2017. "Regime Switching Vine Copula Models for Global Equity and Volatility Indices," Econometrics, MDPI, vol. 5(1), pages 1-38, January.
    11. Henryk Gurgul & Robert Syrek, 2010. "Polish stock market and some foreign markets - dependence analysis by regime-switching copulas," Managerial Economics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, vol. 8, pages 21-39.
    12. Rajan Sruthi & Santhakumar Shijin, 2020. "Investigating liquidity constraints as a channel of contagion: a regime switching approach," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    13. Chollete, Loran & Ning, Cathy, 2009. "The Dependence Structure of Macroeconomic Variables in the US," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2009/31, University of Stavanger.
    14. Chollete, Loran & Ning, Cathy, 2012. "Asymmetric Dependence in the US Economy: Application to Money and the Phillips Curve," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2012/1, University of Stavanger.
    15. Chollete, Lorán & de la Peña, Victor & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2011. "International diversification: A copula approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 403-417, February.
    16. Thijs Markwat, 2014. "The rise of global stock market crash probabilities," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 557-571, April.
    17. Chollete, Loran & Ning, Cathy, 2010. "Asymmetric Dependence in US Financial Risk Factors?," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2011/2, University of Stavanger.
    18. Tong, Bin & Wu, Chongfeng & Zhou, Chunyang, 2013. "Modeling the co-movements between crude oil and refined petroleum markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 882-897.
    19. Małgorzata Doman & Ryszard Doman, 2013. "Dynamic linkages between stock markets: the effects of crises and globalization," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 12(2), pages 87-112, August.
    20. Mauro Bernardi & Leopoldo Catania, 2015. "Switching-GAS Copula Models With Application to Systemic Risk," Papers 1504.03733, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2016.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wut:journl:v:2:y:2014:p:59-79:id:1094. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iopwrpl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Adam Kasperski (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iopwrpl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.