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The League Composition Effect in Tournaments with Heterogeneous Players: An Empirical Analysis of Broiler Contracts

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  • Armando Levy

    (Analysis Group/Economics)

  • Tomislav Vukina

    (North Carolina State University)

Abstract

We compare welfare effects of tournaments and piece rates in contracts with heterogeneous ability agents and demonstrate that tournaments that mix players of unequal abilities create a league composition effect. When leagues are fixed and the time horizon sufficiently long, piece rates improve welfare over tournaments. Using contract production data for broiler chickens, we estimate the variances of growers' abilities, common production shock, and grower's idiosyncratic shock. Growers' abilities are heterogeneous, and common production shocks are significant. Leagues in broiler tournaments disintegrate rapidly over time, suggesting that tournament contracts offer more welfare than piece rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Armando Levy & Tomislav Vukina, 2004. "The League Composition Effect in Tournaments with Heterogeneous Players: An Empirical Analysis of Broiler Contracts," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 353-378, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:jlabec:v:22:y:2004:i:2:p:353-378
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1981. "Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 841-864, October.
    2. Armando Levy & Tomislav Vukina, 2002. "Optimal linear contracts with heterogeneous agents," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 29(2), pages 205-217, June.
    3. Green, Jerry R & Stokey, Nancy L, 1983. "A Comparison of Tournaments and Contracts," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 349-364, June.
    4. Knoeber, Charles R & Thurman, Walter N, 1994. "Testing the Theory of Tournaments: An Empirical Analysis of Broiler Production," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(2), pages 155-179, April.
    5. Bengt Holmstrom, 1982. "Moral Hazard in Teams," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 324-340, Autumn.
    6. Theofanis Tsoulouhas & Tomislav Vukina, 1999. "Integrator Contracts with Many Agents and Bankruptcy," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(1), pages 61-74.
    7. Andrei Shleifer, 1985. "A Theory of Yardstick Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(3), pages 319-327, Autumn.
    8. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1987. "Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 303-328, March.
    9. Knoeber, Charles R, 1989. "A Real Game of Chicken: Contracts, Tournaments, and the Production of Broilers," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 271-292, Fall.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Wu, Steven Y. & Roe, Brian E., 2003. "Performance And Welfare Effects Of Tournament Contracts: Some Experimental Evidence," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 21938, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Fares, M'hand & Orozco, Luis, 2014. "Tournament Mechanism in Wine-Grape Contracts: Evidence from a French Wine Cooperative," Journal of Wine Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(03), pages 320-345, December.
    3. Casas, Agustin & Fawaz, Yarine, 2013. "Altitude as handicap in rank-order football tournaments," UC3M Working papers. Economics we1316, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    4. repec:kap:jeczfn:v:120:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00712-016-0516-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Marinakis, Kosmas & Tsoulouhas, Theofanis, 2013. "Are tournaments optimal over piece rates under limited liability for the principal?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 223-237.
    6. Zheng, Xiaoyong & Vukina, Tomislav, 2007. "Efficiency gains from organizational innovation: Comparing ordinal and cardinal tournament games in broiler contracts," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 843-859, August.
    7. Jed DeVaro & Antti Kauhanen, 2016. "An “Opposing Responses” Test of Classic versus Market-Based Promotion Tournaments," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(3), pages 747-779.
    8. Roe, Brian E. & Wu, Steven Y., 2003. "The Welfare Effects Of Banning Tournaments When Commitment Is Impossible: Some Results From The Broiler Sector," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22151, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Wu, Steven Y. & Roe, Brian E., 2004. "Tournaments, Risk Perceptions, And Fairness," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20154, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    10. Dominik Doll & Eberhard Feess & Alwine Mohnen, 2017. "Ability, Team Composition, and Moral Hazard: Evidence from the Laboratory," Schmalenbach Business Review, Springer;Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft, vol. 18(1), pages 49-70, February.
    11. Hammond, Robert G. & Zheng, Xiaoyong, 2013. "Heterogeneity in tournaments with incomplete information: An experimental analysis," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 248-260.
    12. Rachael Goodhue & Leo Simon, 2016. "Agricultural contracts, adverse selection, and multiple inputs," Agricultural and Food Economics, Springer;Italian Society of Agricultural Economics (SIDEA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-33, December.
    13. Tomislav Vukina & Xiaoyong Zheng, 2007. "Structural Estimation of Rank-Order Tournament Games with Private Information," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(3), pages 651-664.
    14. Heutel, Garth, 2009. "Testing implications of a tournament model of school district salary schedules," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 143-151, February.

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