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Globalization, the Business Cycle, and Macroeconomic Monitoring

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  • S. Borağan Aruoba
  • Francis X. Diebold
  • M. Ayhan Kose
  • Marco E. Terrones

Abstract

We propose and implement a framework for characterizing and monitoring the global business cycle. Our framework utilizes high-frequency data, allows us to account for a potentially large amount of missing observations, and is designed to facilitate the updating of global activity estimates as data are released and revisions become available. We apply the framework to the G-7 countries and study various aspects of national and global business cycles, obtaining three main results. First, our measure of the global business cycle, the common G-7 real activity factor, explains a significant amount of cross-country variation and tracks the major global cyclical events of the past forty years. Second, the common G-7 factor and the idiosyncratic country factors play different roles at different times in shaping national economic activity. Finally, the degree of G-7 business cycle synchronization among country factors has changed over time.
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  • S. Borağan Aruoba & Francis X. Diebold & M. Ayhan Kose & Marco E. Terrones, 2011. "Globalization, the Business Cycle, and Macroeconomic Monitoring," NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 245-286.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:intsma:doi:10.1086/658307
    DOI: 10.1086/658307
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    1. Martin Sommer, 2009. "Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession?," IMF Staff Position Notes 2009/05, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Mr. Martin Sommer, 2009. "Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession?," IMF Staff Position Notes 2009/005, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Jean Imbs, 2010. "The First Global Recession in Decades," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 58(2), pages 327-354, December.
    4. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen & Oved Yosha, 2003. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 903-918, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter C. B. Phillips & Zhentao Shi, 2021. "Boosting: Why You Can Use The Hp Filter," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 62(2), pages 521-570, May.
    2. Gitanjali Kumar, 2013. "High-Frequency Real Economic Activity Indicator for Canada," Staff Working Papers 13-42, Bank of Canada.
    3. Alquist, Ron & Bhattarai, Saroj & Coibion, Olivier, 2020. "Commodity-price comovement and global economic activity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 41-56.
    4. Peter C.B. Phillips & Zhentao Shi, 2019. "Boosting the Hodrick-Prescott Filter," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 2192, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    5. Lahiri, Kajal & Zhao, Yongchen, 2019. "International propagation of shocks: A dynamic factor model using survey forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 929-947.
    6. Camacho, Maximo & Martinez-Martin, Jaime, 2015. "Monitoring the world business cycle," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 617-625.
    7. David Matesanz Gomez & Guillermo J. Ortega & Benno Torgler, 2011. "Measuring globalization: A hierarchical network approach," CREMA Working Paper Series 2011-11, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    8. Pablo A. Cuba-Borda & Alexander Mechanick & Andrea Raffo, 2018. "Monitoring the World Economy: A Global Conditions Index," IFDP Notes 2018-06-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. Fernández, Andrés & González, Andrés & Rodríguez, Diego, 2018. "Sharing a ride on the commodities roller coaster: Common factors in business cycles of emerging economies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 99-121.
    10. In Choi & Dukpa Kim & Yun Jung Kim & Noh‐Sun Kwark, 2018. "A multilevel factor model: Identification, asymptotic theory and applications," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(3), pages 355-377, April.
    11. Jason Angelopoulos & Costas I. Chlomoudis, 2017. "A Generalized Dynamic Factor Model for the U.S. Port Sector," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 67(1), pages 22-37, January-M.
    12. Chiu Adrian & Wieladek Tomasz, 2013. "Is the “Great Recession” really so different from the past?," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 13(1), pages 1-48, October.
    13. Golinelli, Roberto & Parigi, Giuseppe, 2014. "Tracking world trade and GDP in real time," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 847-862.
    14. Mr. Maxym Kryshko, 2011. "Data-Rich DSGE and Dynamic Factor Models," IMF Working Papers 2011/216, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Diebold, Francis X. & Yilmaz, Kamil, 2015. "Financial and Macroeconomic Connectedness: A Network Approach to Measurement and Monitoring," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199338306.
    16. Francis X. Diebold & Kamil Yilmaz, 2013. "Measuring the Dynamics of Global Business Cycle Connectedness," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-070, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    17. David Matesanz Gomez & Guillermo J. Ortega & Benno Torgler, 2012. "Synchronization and Diversity in Business Cycles: A Network Approach Applied to the European Union," CREMA Working Paper Series 2012-01, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    18. Alessandro Borin & Riccardo Cristadoro & Roberto Golinelli & Giuseppe Parigi, 2012. "Forecasting world output: the rising importance of emerging economies," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 853, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    19. S. Boragan Aruoba & Cagri Sarikaya, 2013. "A Real Economic Activity Indicator for Turkey," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 13(1), pages 15-29.
    20. Mr. Olivier Coibion & Mr. Ron Alquist, 2013. "The Comovement in Commodity Prices: Sources and Implications," IMF Working Papers 2013/140, International Monetary Fund.
    21. David Matesanz Gomez & Guillermo J. Ortega & Benno Torgler, 2012. "Synchronization and Diversity in Business Cycles: A Network Approach Applied to the European Union," CREMA Working Paper Series 2012-01, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

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