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Value Added in English Schools


  • Andrew Ray

    () (Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, Kingsgate House, 66-74 Victoria Street, London, United Kingdom SW1E 6SQ)

  • Tanya McCormack

    () (Department for Children, Schools and Families, Sanctuary Buildings, Great Smith Street, Westminster, London, United Kingdom SW1V 3BT)

  • Helen Evans

    () (Department for Children, Schools and Families, Sanctuary Buildings, Great Smith Street, Westminster, London, United Kingdom SW1V 3BT)


Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007–8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other professionals in local and national governments. The article outlines the development of value-added models in England following the introduction of national testing at ages seven, eleven, and fourteen in the 1990s. It describes the current “contextual” value-added models in detail, looking at the mathematical specification of the multilevel models and discussing the practical choice of explanatory attainment and contextual variables. The article also describes various uses of the value-added models, including in the published school achievement and attainment tables and in the RAISEonline system that supports schools in their self-evaluation and development planning and informs external inspection. © 2009 American Education Finance Association

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew Ray & Tanya McCormack & Helen Evans, 2009. "Value Added in English Schools," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 4(4), pages 415-438, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:edfpol:v:4:y:2009:i:4:p:415-438

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    1. repec:nos:voprob:2013:i:4:p:188-246 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:bla:jorssa:v:180:y:2017:i:1:p:315-340 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    value-added modeling; school accountability; England;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education


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