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Clustering in the Creative Industries: Insights from the Origins of Computer Software


  • Martin Campbell-Kelly
  • Marina Danilevsky
  • Daniel Garcia-Swartz
  • Shane Pederson


We use several different sources (a 1970 Roster of Organizations in Data Processing and the 1960 and 1970 Censuses of Population) to study patterns of geographic clustering at the very origins of the software industry. We find a strong trend toward clustering of the industry in a few metropolitan areas. Furthermore, we uncover a tendency in the early software industry to agglomerate in close proximity to some of its main customers. This tendency holds even after controlling for region-specific heterogeneity and for the potentially endogenous nature of the software customers' location decisions. We explore the factors that may have driven the observed clustering patterns and suggest directions for further research.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Campbell-Kelly & Marina Danilevsky & Daniel Garcia-Swartz & Shane Pederson, 2010. "Clustering in the Creative Industries: Insights from the Origins of Computer Software," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 309-329.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:indinn:v:17:y:2010:i:3:p:309-329
    DOI: 10.1080/13662711003790593

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    Cited by:

    1. Sara Cruz & Aurora Teixeira, 2015. "The neglected heterogeneity of spatial agglomeration and co-location patterns of creative employment: evidence from Portugal," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(1), pages 143-177, January.
    2. Rafael Boix & José Luis Hervás-Oliver & Blanca De Miguel-Molina, 2015. "Micro-geographies of creative industries clusters in Europe: From hot spots to assemblages," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(4), pages 753-772, November.
    3. Florencia Garcia-Vicente & Daniel Garcia-Swartz & Martin Campbell-Kelly, 2017. "Information technology clusters and regional growth in America, 1970–1980," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(4), pages 1021-1046, April.


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