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Calculating Energy-Related Co 2 Emissions Embodied In International Trade Using A Global Input--Output Model

Author

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  • Kirsten S. Wiebe
  • Martin Bruckner
  • Stefan Giljum
  • Christian Lutz

Abstract

The Global Resource Accounting Model (GRAM) is an environmentally-extended multi-regional input--output model, covering 48 sectors in 53 countries and two regions. Next to CO 2 emissions, GRAM also includes different resource categories. Using GRAM, we are able to estimate the amount of carbon emissions embodied in international trade for each year between 1995 and 2005. These results include all origins and destinations of emissions, so that emissions can be allocated to countries consuming the products that embody these emissions. Net-CO 2 imports of OECD countries increased by 80% between 1995 and 2005. These findings become particularly relevant, as the externalisation of environmental burden through international trade might be an effective strategy for industrialised countries to maintain high environmental quality within their own borders, while externalising the negative environmental consequences of their consumption processes to other parts of the world. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects and data requirements of the model, and shows results for selected countries and aggregated regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Kirsten S. Wiebe & Martin Bruckner & Stefan Giljum & Christian Lutz, 2012. "Calculating Energy-Related Co 2 Emissions Embodied In International Trade Using A Global Input--Output Model," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 113-139, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecsysr:v:24:y:2012:i:2:p:113-139
    DOI: 10.1080/09535314.2011.643293
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    1. repec:eee:enepol:v:113:y:2018:i:c:p:356-367 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Denise Imori & Joaquim Guilhoto, 2015. "Tracing Brazilian regions? CO2 emissions in domestic and global trade," ERSA conference papers ersa15p527, European Regional Science Association.
    3. repec:eee:eneeco:v:68:y:2017:i:s1:p:148-168 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Daniel Moran & Richard Wood, 2014. "Convergence Between The Eora, Wiod, Exiobase, And Openeu'S Consumption-Based Carbon Accounts," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(3), pages 245-261, September.
    5. Meng, Bo & Peters, Glen & Wang, Zhi, 2015. "Tracing CO2 emissions in global value chains," IDE Discussion Papers 486, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    6. Denise Imori & Joaquim Jose Martins Guilhoto, 2015. "Tracing Brazilian states’ CO2 emissions in domestic and global trade," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2015_33, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    7. Peng, Shuijun & Zhang, Wencheng & Sun, Chuanwang, 2016. "‘Environmental load displacement’ from the North to the South: A consumption-based perspective with a focus on China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 147-158.
    8. repec:eee:energy:v:147:y:2018:i:c:p:858-875 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Pablo-Romero, María del P. & Sánchez-Braza, Antonio, 2017. "The changing of the relationships between carbon footprints and final demand: Panel data evidence for 40 major countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 8-20.
    10. Gabriela Michalek & Reimund Schwarze, 2015. "Carbon leakage: pollution, trade or politics?," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 17(6), pages 1471-1492, December.
    11. Ahmed, Khalid & Rehman, Mujeeb Ur & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2017. "What drives carbon dioxide emissions in the long-run? Evidence from selected South Asian Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1142-1153.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasreen, Samia & Ahmed, Khalid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2017. "Trade openness–carbon emissions nexus: The importance of turning points of trade openness for country panels," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 221-232.
    13. Cortés-Borda, D. & Ruiz-Hernández, A. & Guillén-Gosálbez, G. & Llop, M. & Guimerà, R. & Sales-Pardo, M., 2015. "Identifying strategies for mitigating the global warming impact of the EU-25 economy using a multi-objective input–output approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 21-30.
    14. Su, Bin & Ang, B.W., 2014. "Input–output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: A multi-region model for China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 377-384.
    15. Jonas Karstensen & Glen Peters & Robbie Andrew, 2015. "Allocation of global temperature change to consumers," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 129(1), pages 43-55, March.
    16. Kaltenegger, Oliver & Löschel, Andreas & Pothen, Frank, 2017. "The effect of globalisation on energy footprints: Disentangling the links of global value chains," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(S1), pages 148-168.
    17. Wencheng Zhang & Shuijun Peng, 2016. "Analysis on CO 2 Emissions Transferred from Developed Economies to China through Trade," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 24(2), pages 68-89, March.
    18. Sylvain Weber & Reyer Gerlagh & Nicole A. Mathys & Daniel Moran, 2017. "CO2 embedded in trade: trends and fossil fuel drivers," Development Working Papers 413, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 21 Feb 2017.
    19. Mark Meyer & Martin Distelkamp & Gerd Ahlert & Prof. Dr. Bernd Meyer, 2013. "Macroeconomic Modelling of the Global Economy-Energy-Environment Nexus - An Overview of Recent Advancements of the Dynamic Simulation Model GINFORS," GWS Discussion Paper Series 13-5, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    20. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Roubaud, David & Farhani, Sahbi, 2018. "How economic growth, renewable electricity and natural resources contribute to CO2 emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 356-367.
    21. repec:spr:nathaz:v:86:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11069-016-2727-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Kirsten Svenja Wiebe & Christian Lutz, 2012. "Consumer responsibilities of carbon emissions in a post-Kyoto regime until 2020," EcoMod2012 3798, EcoMod.
    23. Aleix Altimiras-Martin, 2012. "Basic analytical tool-kit for input-output tables with multiple related outputs: Applications to physical input-output tables with disposals to nature," 4CMR Working Paper Series 001, University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research.

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