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The hedging performance of electricity futures on the Nordic power exchange


  • H. N. E. BystrOm


The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), the first multinational exchange for electricity trading, has existed since January 1996. Spot and futures contracts are traded on this exchange and its typical characteristics are very high volatilities as well as non-normally distributed returns. This article looks at electricity futures and how they can be used for short-term hedging of positions taken in the spot market. It studies the minimum variance hedge ratio and how it can be estimated in different ways. The traditional naive hedge and the OLS hedge are compared out-of-sample to more elaborate moving average and GARCH hedges, and the empirical results indicate some gains from hedging with futures despite the lack of straight-forward arbitrage possibilities in the electricity market. Furthermore, we find a slightly better performance of the simple OLS hedge compared to the conditional hedges.

Suggested Citation

  • H. N. E. BystrOm, 2003. "The hedging performance of electricity futures on the Nordic power exchange," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 1-11.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:35:y:2003:i:1:p:1-11
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840210138365

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kroner, Kenneth F. & Sultan, Jahangir, 1993. "Time-Varying Distributions and Dynamic Hedging with Foreign Currency Futures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 535-551, December.
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    1. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6808 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Beatriz Martínez Martínez & Hipolit Torro Enguix, 2017. "Hedging spark spread risk with futures," Working Papers. Serie EC 2017-01, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    3. Dungey, Mardi & Henry, Olan T & Hvodzdyk, Lyudmyla, 2013. "The impact of jumps and thin trading on realized hedge ratios," Working Papers 2013-02, University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, revised 28 Mar 2013.
    4. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Huang, Chih-Yueh & van Dellen, Stefan, 2015. "A regime switching approach for hedging tanker shipping freight rates," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 44-59.
    5. Martínez, Beatriz & Torró, Hipòlit, 2015. "European natural gas seasonal effects on futures hedging," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 154-168.
    6. Saphores, Jean-Daniel & Gravel, Éric & Bernard, Jean-Thomas, 2003. "Environmental Impact Assessment and Investment under Uncertainty. An Application to Power Grid Interconnection," Cahiers de recherche 0303, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    7. Fu, Junhui, 2014. "Multi-objective hedging model with the third central moment and the capital budget," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 213-219.
    8. Zanotti, Giovanna & Gabbi, Giampaolo & Geranio, Manuela, 2010. "Hedging with futures: Efficacy of GARCH correlation models to European electricity markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 135-148, April.
    9. Liu, Xiaochun & Jacobsen, Brian, 2011. "The Dynamic International Optimal Hedge Ratio," MPRA Paper 35260, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Hsiang-Tai Lee & Jonathan Yoder, 2007. "A bivariate Markov regime switching GARCH approach to estimate time varying minimum variance hedge ratios," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(10), pages 1253-1265.
    11. Bessler, Wolfgang & Wolff, Dominik, 2014. "Hedging European government bond portfolios during the recent sovereign debt crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 379-399.
    12. Ángel León & Antonio Rubia, 2002. "Forecasting Time-Varying Covariance Matrices In Intradaily Electricity Spot Prices," Working Papers. Serie AD 2002-10, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    13. Theodorou, Petros & Karyampas, Dimitrios, 2008. "Modeling the return and volatility of the Greek electricity marginal system price," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2601-2609, July.
    14. Charalampous, Georgios & Madlener, Reinhard, 2013. "Risk Management and Portfolio Optimization for Gas- and Coal-fired Power Plants in Germany: A Multivariate GARCH Approach," FCN Working Papers 23/2013, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
    15. Torro, Hipolit, 2009. "Assessing the influence of spot price predictability on electricity futures hedging," MPRA Paper 18892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Frestad, Dennis, 2012. "Liquidity and dirty hedging in the Nordic electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1341-1355.
    17. Ciarreta Antuñano, Aitor & Zárraga Alonso, Ainhoa, 2012. "Analysis of volatility transmissions in integrated and interconnected markets: The case of the Iberian and French markets," BILTOKI Biltoki;2012-04, Universidad del País Vasco - Departamento de Economía Aplicada III (Econometría y Estadística).
    18. Lee, Hsiang-Tai, 2009. "Optimal futures hedging under jump switching dynamics," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 446-456, June.
    19. Chang, Chiao-Yi & Lai, Jing-Yi & Chuang, I-Yuan, 2010. "Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 442-449, March.

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