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Moonlighting: multiple motives and gender differences

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  • Susan Averett

Abstract

This paper examines the incidence and reasons for moonlighting with a focus on gender differences. The study specifies and estimates a bivariate probit model of labour supply and the decision to hold more than one job. It is found that the factors leading men and women to moonlight are similar. A wage decomposition analysis reveals that 93 percent of the differential between male and female moonlighters' wages is not explained by differences in characteristics, and little connection is found between an individual's human capital and their moonlighting wage. Finally, it is found that moonlighters are less likely to report their income.

Suggested Citation

  • Susan Averett, 2001. "Moonlighting: multiple motives and gender differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(11), pages 1391-1410.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:33:y:2001:i:11:p:1391-1410
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840010007957
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paxson, Christina H & Sicherman, Nachum, 1996. "The Dynamics of Dual Job Holding and Job Mobility," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 357-393, July.
    2. Jean Kimmel & Karen Smith Conway, 1995. "Who Moonlights and Why?: Evidence from the SIPP," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 95-40, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Renna, Francesco & Oaxaca, Ronald L., 2006. "The Economics of Dual Job Holding: A Job Portfolio Model of Labor Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 1915, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. repec:eme:jespps:jes-04-2016-0074 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Heineck, Guido & Schwarze, Johannes, 2004. "Fly Me to the Moon: The Determinants of Secondary Jobholding in Germany and the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 1358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Priscila Casari, 2010. "Labor Supply in Brazil: an Analysis of the Second Job in the Urban and Rural Areas," Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Curso de Ciencias Economicas da UFG 019, Curso de Ciencias Economicas da Universidade Federal de Goias - FACE.
    5. Dan Andrews & Aida Caldera Sánchez & Åsa Johansson, 2011. "Towards a Better Understanding of the Informal Economy," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 873, OECD Publishing.
    6. Theis Theisen, 2005. "Tanzanian formal sector workers' participation in informal production," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(21), pages 2469-2485.
    7. Socha, Karolina & Bech, Mickael, 2011. "The relationship between dual practice and physicians’ work behaviour in the public hospitals: Results from the Danish survey," COHERE Working Paper 2011:1, University of Southern Denmark, COHERE - Centre of Health Economics Research.
    8. Dolado, Juan J. & Felgueroso, Florentino, 2008. "Occupational Mismatch and Moonlighting Among Spanish Physicians: Do Couples Matter?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6803, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Barry T. Hirsch & Muhammad M. Husain & John V. Winters, 2016. "Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-29, December.
    10. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Jean Kimmel, 2009. "Moonlighting Over The Business Cycle," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 754-765, October.
    11. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Kimmel, Jean, 2005. "Moonlighting Behavior over the Business Cycle," IZA Discussion Papers 1671, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. RENNA Francesco & OAXACA Ronald L. & CHOE Chung, 2013. "Constrained vs Unconstrained Labor Supply: The Economics of Dual Job Holding," LISER Working Paper Series 2013-03, LISER.
    13. Ilias Livanos & Alexandros Zangelidis, 2012. "Multiple Job-holding among Male Workers in Greece," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(1), pages 119-135, March.
    14. Alexander Muravyev, 2007. "Firm Size, Wages and Unobserved Skills: Evidence from Dual Job Holdings in the UK," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 681, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    15. Alexander Muravyev, 2009. "Employer Size, Wages And Unobserved Skills: Evidence From Moonlighters In The Uk," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(6), pages 651-674, December.
    16. Jacob Nunoo & Kwabena Nkansah Darfor & Isaac Koomson & Abigail Arthur, 2018. "Employment security and workers’ moonlighting behavior in Ghana," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 45(1), pages 144-155, January.
    17. Robinson, Helen & Wadsworth, Jonathan, 2006. "The Impact of the Minimum Wage on the Incidence of Second Job Holding in Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 2445, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Socha, Karolina, 2010. "Physician dual practice and the public health care provision. Review of the literature," COHERE Working Paper 2010:4, University of Southern Denmark, COHERE - Centre of Health Economics Research.
    19. Lalé, Etienne, 2016. "The Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in the U.S. Labor Market: The Complete Picture of Gross Worker Flows," IZA Discussion Papers 10355, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Socha, Karolina Z. & Bech, Mickael, 2011. "Physician dual practice: A review of literature," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 1-7, September.

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