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Customer racial discrimination for baseball memorabilia


  • Paul Gabriel
  • Curtis Johnson
  • Timothy Stanton


This paper investigates customer racial discrimination in the market for baseball cards. It extends previous research by measuring customer racial preferences at the beginning and end of players' careers. Our results indicate that customer biases against active Black and Hispanic baseball players may be mitigated by differential expectations of future performance. However, over time we detect statistical differences in rookie card prices by ethnicity, as performance expectations become less important at the end of a player's career.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Gabriel & Curtis Johnson & Timothy Stanton, 1999. "Customer racial discrimination for baseball memorabilia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(11), pages 1331-1335.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:31:y:1999:i:11:p:1331-1335
    DOI: 10.1080/000368499323210

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Per Andersen & Niels Christian Petersen, 1993. "A Procedure for Ranking Efficient Units in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1261-1264, October.
    2. Borden, James P., 1988. "An assessment of the impact of diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based reimbursement on the technical efficiency of New Jersey hospitals using data envelopment analysis," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 77-96.
    3. Blomqvist, Ake, 1991. "The doctor as double agent: Information asymmetry, health insurance, and medical care," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 411-432.
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    Cited by:

    1. Eric Primm & Nicole Leeper Piquero & Robert M. Regoli & Alex R. Piquero, 2010. "The Role of Race in Football Card Prices," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 91(1), pages 129-142.
    2. Leonard, Jonathan S. & Levine, David I., 2003. "Diversity, discrimination, and performance," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt19d1c3n3, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    3. David W. Findlay & John M. Santos, 2012. "Race, Ethnicity, and Baseball Card Prices: A Replication, Correction, and Extension of Hewitt, Muñoz, Oliver, and Regoli," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 9(2), pages 122-140, May.
    4. Thompson Thomas H & Sen Kabir C, 2011. "Valuing Nostalgia: The Case of the Topps 1957 Baseball Cards," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 1-16, May.
    5. Victor Matheson & Robert Baade, 2004. "'Death effect' on collectible prices," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(11), pages 1151-1155.
    6. Robert Muñoz, Jr., 2012. "Beyond Race Cards in America’s Pastime: An Appreciative Reply to Findlay and Santos," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 9(2), pages 141-148, May.

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