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Race and the Likelihood of Managing in Major League Baseball


  • Brian Volz

    (University of Connecticut)


The effects of race on the probability of former Major League Baseball players becoming managers are analyzed using probit models with sample selection correction. The models are estimated using data on the performance and personal characteristics of players from 1955 to 2007. It is shown that given the same performance, personal characteristics, and popularity black former players are 70 to 82 percent less likely to become Major League managers than white former players. It is also shown that being Hispanic does not have a significant effect on the probability of becoming a manager. Additionally, it is observed that catchers and shortstops who are popular but not necessarily good players are most likely to become managers.

Suggested Citation

  • Brian Volz, 2009. "Race and the Likelihood of Managing in Major League Baseball," Working papers 2009-17, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2009-17

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Keane, Michael P, 1994. "A Computationally Practical Simulation Estimator for Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(1), pages 95-116, January.
    2. R. Todd Jewell & Robert Brown & Scott Miles, 2002. "Measuring discrimination in major league baseball: evidence from the baseball hall of fame," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 167-177.
    3. Edward C. Norton & Hua Wang & Chunrong Ai, 2004. "Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 154-167, June.
    4. Janice Fanning Madden & Matthew Ruther, 2011. "Has the NFL's Rooney Rule Efforts “Leveled the Field” for African American Head Coach Candidates?," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 12(2), pages 127-142, April.
    5. Clark Nardinelli & Curtis Simon, 1990. "Customer Racial Discrimination in the Market for Memorabilia: The Case of Baseball," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(3), pages 575-595.
    6. Gabriel, Paul E & Johnson, Curtis & Stanton, Timothy J, 1995. "An Examination of Customer Racial Discrimination in the Market for Baseball Memorabilia," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(2), pages 215-230, April.
    7. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    8. Hanssen, F Andrew & Andersen, Torben, 1999. "Has Discrimination Lessened over Time? A Test Using Baseball's All-Star Vote," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 326-352, April.
    9. Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
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    More about this item


    Baseball; Management; Race; Discrimination;

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism

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