IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/psycho/v83y2018i1d10.1007_s11336-017-9591-8.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Score-Based Tests of Differential Item Functioning via Pairwise Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Author

Listed:
  • Ting Wang

    () (University of Missouri)

  • Carolin Strobl

    () (University of Zurich)

  • Achim Zeileis

    () (Universität Innsbruck)

  • Edgar C. Merkle

    () (University of Missouri)

Abstract

Abstract Measurement invariance is a fundamental assumption in item response theory models, where the relationship between a latent construct (ability) and observed item responses is of interest. Violation of this assumption would render the scale misinterpreted or cause systematic bias against certain groups of persons. While a number of methods have been proposed to detect measurement invariance violations, they typically require advance definition of problematic item parameters and respondent grouping information. However, these pieces of information are typically unknown in practice. As an alternative, this paper focuses on a family of recently proposed tests based on stochastic processes of casewise derivatives of the likelihood function (i.e., scores). These score-based tests only require estimation of the null model (when measurement invariance is assumed to hold), and they have been previously applied in factor-analytic, continuous data contexts as well as in models of the Rasch family. In this paper, we aim to extend these tests to two-parameter item response models, with strong emphasis on pairwise maximum likelihood. The tests’ theoretical background and implementation are detailed, and the tests’ abilities to identify problematic item parameters are studied via simulation. An empirical example illustrating the tests’ use in practice is also provided.

Suggested Citation

  • Ting Wang & Carolin Strobl & Achim Zeileis & Edgar C. Merkle, 2018. "Score-Based Tests of Differential Item Functioning via Pairwise Maximum Likelihood Estimation," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 83(1), pages 132-155, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:psycho:v:83:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11336-017-9591-8
    DOI: 10.1007/s11336-017-9591-8
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11336-017-9591-8
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. David Thissen, 1982. "Marginal maximum likelihood estimation for the one-parameter logistic model," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 175-186, June.
    2. Edgar Merkle & Jinyan Fan & Achim Zeileis, 2014. "Testing for Measurement Invariance with Respect to an Ordinal Variable," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 79(4), pages 569-584, October.
    3. Achim Zeileis & Kurt Hornik, 2007. "Generalized M‐fluctuation tests for parameter instability," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 61(4), pages 488-508, November.
    4. Myrsini Katsikatsou & Irini Moustaki, 2016. "Pairwise Likelihood Ratio Tests and Model Selection Criteria for Structural Equation Models with Ordinal Variables," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 81(4), pages 1046-1068, December.
    5. Carolin Strobl & Julia Kopf & Achim Zeileis, 2015. "Rasch Trees: A New Method for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Rasch Model," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 80(2), pages 289-316, June.
    6. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    7. Rosseel, Yves, 2012. "lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 48(i02).
    8. Katsikatsou, Myrsini & Moustaki, Irini & Yang-Wallentin, Fan & Jöreskog, Karl G., 2012. "Pairwise likelihood estimation for factor analysis models with ordinal data," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 43182, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Timo Bechger & Gunter Maris, 2015. "A Statistical Test for Differential Item Pair Functioning," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 80(2), pages 317-340, June.
    10. Wim Van den Noortgate & Paul De Boeck, 2005. "Assessing and Explaining Differential Item Functioning Using Logistic Mixed Models," Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, , vol. 30(4), pages 443-464, December.
    11. Gerhard Tutz & Gunther Schauberger, 2015. "A Penalty Approach to Differential Item Functioning in Rasch Models," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 80(1), pages 21-43, March.
    12. Katsikatsou, Myrsini & Moustaki, Irini & Yang-Wallentin, Fan & Jöreskog, Karl G., 2012. "Pairwise likelihood estimation for factor analysis models with ordinal data," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(12), pages 4243-4258.
    13. Cees Glas, 1999. "Modification indices for the 2-PL and the nominal response model," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 64(3), pages 273-294, September.
    14. Chalmers, R. Philip, 2012. "mirt: A Multidimensional Item Response Theory Package for the R Environment," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 48(i06).
    15. Stephen Schilling & R. Bock, 2005. "High-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood item factor analysis by adaptive quadrature," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 70(3), pages 533-555, September.
    16. Gerhard Fischer, 1995. "Some neglected problems in IRT," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 459-487, December.
    17. Yoshio Takane & Jan Leeuw, 1987. "On the relationship between item response theory and factor analysis of discretized variables," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 393-408, September.
    18. Nambury Raju, 1988. "The area between two item characteristic curves," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 53(4), pages 495-502, December.
    19. Edgar Merkle & Achim Zeileis, 2013. "Tests of Measurement Invariance Without Subgroups: A Generalization of Classical Methods," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 78(1), pages 59-82, January.
    20. Albert Satorra, 1989. "Alternative test criteria in covariance structure analysis: A unified approach," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 54(1), pages 131-151, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:psycho:v:83:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11336-017-9591-8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.