Testing for Measurement Invariance with Respect to an Ordinal Variable
Researchers are often interested in testing for measurement invariance with respect to an ordinal auxiliary variable such as age group, income class, or school grade. In a factor-analytic context, these tests are traditionally carried out via a likelihood ratio test statistic comparing a model where parameters differ across groups to a model where parameters are equal across groups. This test neglects the fact that the auxiliary variable is ordinal, and it is also known to be overly sensitive at large sample sizes. In this paper, we propose test statistics that explicitly account for the ordinality of the auxiliary variable, resulting in higher power against "monotonic" violations of measurement invariance and lower power against "non-monotonic" ones. The statistics are derived from a family of tests based on stochastic processes that have recently received attention in the psychometric literature. The statistics are illustrated via an application involving real data, and their performance is studied via simulation.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2012|
|Date of revision:|
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- Zeileis, Achim & Leisch, Friedrich & Hornik, Kurt & Kleiber, Christian, 2002.
"strucchange: An R Package for Testing for Structural Change in Linear Regression Models,"
Journal of Statistical Software,
Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 7(i02).
- Zeileis, Achim & Leisch, Friedrich & Hornik, Kurt & Kleiber, Christian, 2001. "Strucchange: An R package for testing for structural change in linear regression models," Technical Reports 2001,26, Technische Universität Dortmund, Sonderforschungsbereich 475: Komplexitätsreduktion in multivariaten Datenstrukturen.
- Albert Satorra & Peter M. Bentler, 1999.
"A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis,"
Economics Working Papers
412, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Albert Satorra & Peter Bentler, 2001. "A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 66(4), pages 507-514, December.
- Rosseel, Yves, 2012. "lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 48(i02).
- Carolin Strobl & Julia Kopf & Achim Zeileis, 2011. "A new method for detecting differential item functioning in the Rasch model," Working Papers 2011-01, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
- Zeileis, Achim, 2006. "Object-oriented Computation of Sandwich Estimators," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 16(i09).
- Zeileis, Achim, 2006. "Implementing a class of structural change tests: An econometric computing approach," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 50(11), pages 2987-3008, July.
- Torsten Hothorn & Achim Zeileis, 2008. "Generalized Maximally Selected Statistics," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 1263-1269, December.
- Edgar Merkle & Achim Zeileis, 2013. "Tests of Measurement Invariance Without Subgroups: A Generalization of Classical Methods," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 78(1), pages 59-82, January.
- Achim Zeileis & Kurt Hornik, 2007. "Generalized M-fluctuation tests for parameter instability," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 61(4), pages 488-508.
- Albert Satorra, 1989. "Alternative test criteria in covariance structure analysis: A unified approach," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 54(1), pages 131-151, March.
- Conor Dolan & Han Maas, 1998. "Fitting multivariage normal finite mixtures subject to structural equation modeling," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 63(3), pages 227-253, September.
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