IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Chinese control over African and global mining—past, present and future


  • Magnus Ericsson

    (Luleå University of Technology)

  • Olof Löf

    (RMG Consulting)

  • Anton Löf



Chinese companies are far from taking control over African or global mining. In 2018, they control less than 7% of the value of total African mine production. Chinese investments in African mining of non-fuel minerals between 1995 and 2018 have contributed to production growth but it has also increased Chinese control over African mineral and metal production. There is evidence pointing to a continued Chinese expansion in African minerals and metals but at a slower pace than in the past decade. Through a detailed analysis of every mine, fully or partially controlled by Chinese interest in Africa and all other parts of the world the paper also measures total Chinese control over global mine production to be around 3% of the total value.

Suggested Citation

  • Magnus Ericsson & Olof Löf & Anton Löf, 2020. "Chinese control over African and global mining—past, present and future," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 33(1), pages 153-181, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-020-00233-4
    DOI: 10.1007/s13563-020-00233-4

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ping Deng, 2013. "Chinese Outward Direct Investment Research: Theoretical Integration and Recommendations. 通过研究中国对外投资发展理论: 现实与建议," Management and Organization Review, The International Association for Chinese Management Research, vol. 9(3), pages 513-539, November.
    2. Wegenast, Tim & Strüver, Georg & Giesen, Juliane & Krauser, Mario, 2017. "At Africa's Expense? Disaggregating the Social Impact of Chinese Mining Operations," GIGA Working Papers 308, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
    3. Zhenbin Rao, 2016. "Consolidating policies on Chinese rare earth resources," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 29(1), pages 23-28, April.
    4. Magnus Ericsson & Olof Löf, 2019. "Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 2016," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 32(2), pages 223-250, July.
    5. Hany Besada & Ben O’Bright, 2017. "Maturing Sino–Africa relations," Third World Quarterly, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 655-677, March.
    6. Magnus Ericsson & Andreas Tegen, 2016. "Global PGM mining during 40 years—a stable corporate landscape of oligopolistic control," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 29(1), pages 29-36, April.
    7. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-1177, December.
    8. Tang, Pengcheng & Yang, Shuxiang & Yang, Shuwang, 2020. "How to design corporate governance structures to enhance corporate social responsibility in China's mining state-owned enterprises?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    9. Raphael Kaplinsky & Mike Morris, 2009. "Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: Engaging with Large Dragons," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 21(4), pages 551-569, September.
    10. Deng, Ping, 2013. "Chinese Outward Direct Investment Research: Theoretical Integration and Recommendations," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(3), pages 513-539, November.
    11. David Humphreys, 2015. "The Remaking of the Mining Industry," Palgrave Macmillan Books, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-1-137-44201-7, November.
    12. Wilson, Jeffrey D., 2012. "Chinese resource security policies and the restructuring of the Asia-Pacific iron ore market," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 331-339.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Rachidi, Ntebatše R. & Nwaila, Glen T. & Zhang, Steven E. & Bourdeau, Julie E. & Ghorbani, Yousef, 2021. "Assessing cobalt supply sustainability through production forecasting and implications for green energy policies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    2. Xiaoliang Wang & Danlin Yu & Chunhua Yuan, 2021. "Complementary Development between China and Sub-Sahara Africa: Examining China’s Mining Investment Strategies in Africa," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(21), pages 1-19, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Miaojie Yu, 2020. "China-US Trade War and Trade Talk," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-981-15-3785-1, September.
    2. Xing Zhou & Quan Guo & Ming Zhang, 2021. "Impacts of OFDI on Host Country Energy Consumption and Home Country Energy Efficiency Based on a Belt and Road Perspective," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(21), pages 1-25, November.
    3. Olawoyin Gregory Adedigba & Runhui Lin & Nizam Ud Din, 2020. "The degree of internationalization of Chinese Multinationals along the belt and road initiative countries," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(7), pages 1-22, July.
    4. Kenneth Kalu, 2021. "‘Respect’ and ‘agency’ as driving forces for China–Africa relations," Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(4), pages 336-347, December.
    5. Elia, Stefano & Kafouros, Mario & Buckley, Peter J., 2020. "The role of internationalization in enhancing the innovation performance of Chinese EMNEs: A geographic relational approach," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 26(4).
    6. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.
    7. Quer Ramón, Diego & Claver Cortés, Enrique & Rienda García, Laura, 2017. "Chinese multinationals in Spain: Determinants of establishment mode choice," Cuadernos de Gestión, Universidad del País Vasco - Instituto de Economía Aplicada a la Empresa (IEAE).
    8. Li, Wei & Liu, Zhi & Xia, Senmao & Yan, Ji & Xiong, Yu & Sakka, Georgia & Yu Li, Rebecca, 2022. "How can emerging-market SMEs domestically benefit from their performance in developed countries? Empirical evidence from China," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 200-210.
    9. Haifeng Yan & Juan Wang & Ping Deng, 2018. "Outbound linkage and inbound leverage for emerging multinationals: A signaling theory perspective," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 347-372, June.
    10. Howell, Anthony & Lin, Jia & Worack, Stephan, 2020. "Going out to innovate more at home: Impacts of outward direct investments on Chinese firms' domestic innovation performance," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    11. Wu, Bing & Deng, Ping, 2020. "Internationalization of SMEs from emerging markets: An institutional escape perspective," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 337-350.
    12. Zhang, Yameng & Zhan, Wu & Xu, Yekun & Kumar, Vikas, 2020. "International friendship cities, regional government leaders, and outward foreign direct investment from China," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 105-118.
    13. Donatella Baiardi & Valeria Gattai & Piergiovanna Natale, 2021. "Estimating the ex‐ante and the ex‐post effects of Chinese outward FDI," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(12), pages 3641-3673, December.
    14. Barbora Abu Dayeh & Martin Janíčko, 2021. "Determinants of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe," Central European Business Review, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2021(3), pages 19-36.
    15. Huang, Yuanyuan & Xie, En & Li, Yu & Reddy, K.S., 2017. "Does state ownership facilitate outward FDI of Chinese SOEs? Institutional development, market competition, and the logic of interdependence between governments and SOEs," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 176-188.
    16. Sucharita Gopal & Joshua Pitts & Zhongshu Li & Kevin P. Gallagher & James G. Baldwin & William N. Kring, 2018. "Fueling Global Energy Finance: The Emergence of China in Global Energy Investment," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(10), pages 1-25, October.
    17. Yulia Muratova & Jakob Arnoldi & Xin Chen & Joachim Scholderer, 2018. "Political rotations and cross-province firm acquisitions in China," Asian Business & Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(1), pages 37-58, February.
    18. Li, Xinjian & Huang, Songshan (Sam) & Song, Changyao, 2017. "China's outward foreign direct investment in tourism," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1-6.
    19. Hong-Hai Ho & Thi-Hanh Vu & Ngoc-Tien Dao & Manh-Tung Ho & Quan-Hoang Vuong, 2019. "When the Poor Buy the Rich: New Evidence on Wealth Effects of Cross-Border Acquisitions," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(2), pages 1-15, June.
    20. Kevin Michael Fleary & Ye Chunming, 2017. "Huawei Leapfrogging System Integration With TSTT," SAGE Open, , vol. 7(2), pages 21582440176, April.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-020-00233-4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.