IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/minecn/v33y2020i1d10.1007_s13563-019-00214-2.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018

Author

Listed:
  • Yuzhou Shen

    (Colorado School of Mines and Critical Materials Institute)

  • Ruthann Moomy
  • Roderick G. Eggert

    (Colorado School of Mines and Critical Materials Institute)

Abstract

This paper summarizes and evaluates China’s policies toward the rare-earth industry from 1975 to 2018. We define five stages over this period and focus on China’s purpose, the underlying economic background in each stage, and the connections between stages. By reviewing a broad set of original policy documents, we find that the purpose of China’s policies has evolved, affected by the market players, the development of the mineral industry, and the state of the Chinese economy. Initially, the Chinese government encouraged the development of the upstream rare-earth sector. Since the early 1990s, China has focused on the development of downstream activities that use rare earths in the manufacture of intermediate and final products. Since the early 2000s, China has focused additionally on the problems of disorder in the rare-earth industry with particular reference to the environmental degradation caused by rare-earth production, as well as industrial reorganization to discourage unsanctioned production.

Suggested Citation

  • Yuzhou Shen & Ruthann Moomy & Roderick G. Eggert, 2020. "China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 33(1), pages 127-151, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-019-00214-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Han, Aiping & Ge, Jianping & Lei, Yalin, 2016. "Vertical vs. horizontal integration: Game analysis for the rare earth industrial integration in China," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 149-159.
    2. Packey, Daniel J. & Kingsnorth, Dudley, 2016. "The impact of unregulated ionic clay rare earth mining in China," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 112-116.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Yurim & Dacass, Tennecia, 2022. "Reducing the United States’ risks of dependency on China in the rare earth market," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    2. Zuo, Zhili & Cheng, Jinhua & Guo, Haixiang & McLellan, Benjamin Craig, 2021. "Catastrophe progression method - path (CPM-PATH) early warning analysis of Chinese rare earths industry security," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    3. Koyamparambath, Anish & Santillán-Saldivar, Jair & McLellan, Benjamin & Sonnemann, Guido, 2022. "Supply risk evolution of raw materials for batteries and fossil fuels for selected OECD countries (2000–2018)," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    4. Zhe Chen & Zhongzhong Hu & Kai Li, 2021. "The spillover effect of trade policy along the value Chain: Evidence from China's rare earth‐related sectors," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(12), pages 3550-3582, December.
    5. Seiler, Volker, 2021. "China-to-FOB price transmission in the rare earth elements market and the end of Chinese export restrictions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C).
    6. Yi, Jiahui & Dai, Sheng & Cheng, Jinhua & Wu, Qiaosheng & Liu, Kailei, 2021. "Production quota policy in China: Implications for sustainable supply capacity of critical minerals," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yi, Jiahui & Dai, Sheng & Cheng, Jinhua & Wu, Qiaosheng & Liu, Kailei, 2021. "Production quota policy in China: Implications for sustainable supply capacity of critical minerals," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    2. Brown, Maxwell & Eggert, Roderick, 2018. "Simulating producer responses to selected chinese rare earth policies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 31-48.
    3. Shuanglei Huang & Daishe Wu, 2021. "Start-up Strategies for Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox) in In-Situ Nitrogen Removal from Polluted Groundwater in Rare Earth Mining Areas," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(8), pages 1-17, April.
    4. Marc Schmid, 2021. "The Revised German Raw Materials Strategy in the Light of Global Political and Market Developments," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 38(1), pages 49-75, January.
    5. Ge, Jianping & Lei, Yalin, 2018. "Resource tax on rare earths in China: Policy evolution and market responses," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 291-297.
    6. Ba, Bocar Samba & Combes-Motel, Pascale & Schwartz, Sonia, 2020. "Challenging pollution and the balance problem from rare earth extraction: how recycling and environmental taxation matter," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(6), pages 634-656, December.
    7. Chai, Song & Zhang, Zhicong & Ge, Jianping, 2020. "Evolution of environmental policy for China's rare earths: Comparing central and local government policies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    8. Lee, Yurim & Dacass, Tennecia, 2022. "Reducing the United States’ risks of dependency on China in the rare earth market," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    9. Jingxuan Geng & Han Hao & Xin Sun & Dengye Xun & Zongwei Liu & Fuquan Zhao, 2021. "Static material flow analysis of neodymium in China," Journal of Industrial Ecology, Yale University, vol. 25(1), pages 114-124, February.
    10. Paulick, Holger & Machacek, Erika, 2017. "The global rare earth element exploration boom: An analysis of resources outside of China and discussion of development perspectives," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 134-153.
    11. Liu He & Bai Gao & Xin Luo & Jimmy Jiao & Huanhuan Qin & Chunyan Zhang & Yihui Dong, 2018. "Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water near a Uranium Tailing Pond in Jiangxi Province, South China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(4), pages 1-12, April.
    12. Schmid, Marc, 2019. "Mitigating supply risks through involvement in rare earth projects: Japan's strategies and what the US can learn," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-1.
    13. Song, Ying & Bouri, Elie & Ghosh, Sajal & Kanjilal, Kakali, 2021. "Rare earth and financial markets: Dynamics of return and volatility connectedness around the COVID-19 outbreak," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    14. Hau, Liya & Zhu, Huiming & Yu, Yang & Yu, Dongwei, 2022. "Time-frequency coherence and quantile causality between trade policy uncertainty and rare earth prices: Evidence from China and the US," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    15. Yufeng Chen & Biao Zheng, 2019. "What Happens after the Rare Earth Crisis: A Systematic Literature Review," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(5), pages 1-26, March.
    16. Waldemar Marz, 2019. "Komplexitätsdimensionen von Klimapolitik: Die Rolle von politischer Ökonomie, Kapitalmärkten und der Stadtform," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 85.
    17. Li, Pei & Tan, Dan & Wang, Guangyong & Wei, Hang & Wu, Jilan, 2021. "Retailer's vertical integration strategies under different business modes," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 294(3), pages 965-975.
    18. Erika Machacek & Jessika Luth Richter & Ruth Lane, 2017. "Governance and Risk–Value Constructions in Closing Loops of Rare Earth Elements in Global Value Chains," Resources, MDPI, vol. 6(4), pages 1-25, October.
    19. Imholte, D.D. & Nguyen, R.T. & Vedantam, A. & Brown, M. & Iyer, A. & Smith, B.J. & Collins, J.W. & Anderson, C.G. & O’Kelley, B., 2018. "An assessment of U.S. rare earth availability for supporting U.S. wind energy growth targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 294-305.
    20. Sven Renner & Friedrich W. Wellmer, 2020. "Volatility drivers on the metal market and exposure of producing countries," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 33(3), pages 311-340, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:33:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s13563-019-00214-2. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.