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Youth in India: challenges of employment and inclusion


  • Rajendra P. Mamgain

    () (Giri Institute of Development Studies)

  • Shivakar Tiwari

    (Giri Institute of Development Studies)


Abstract Using the NSSO data on Employment and Unemployment, this paper examines issues of employment and unemployment among Indian youth belonging to various social and religious groups since the advent of the economic reforms in the early 1990s. It shows how an increasing proportion of the youth population is facing situations of high open unemployment during a period of high economic growth. The predominance of the poor quality of employment available to youths is also a major issue of concern, especially for those belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Muslim communities. Using the Logit Model, the paper shows how education, gender, social belonging and location play significant roles in determining youths participation in labour force, education and quality of employment. The paper argues for strengthening measures to create decent employment on a large scale and for improving the education and skill levels of youths with a greater focus on those belonging to the marginalised groups of Indian society.

Suggested Citation

  • Rajendra P. Mamgain & Shivakar Tiwari, 2016. "Youth in India: challenges of employment and inclusion," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 85-100, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jsecdv:v:18:y:2016:i:1:d:10.1007_s40847-016-0025-8
    DOI: 10.1007/s40847-016-0025-8

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kaivan Munshi, 2011. "Strength in Numbers: Networks as a Solution to Occupational Traps," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(3), pages 1069-1101.
    2. Mitra, Arup. & Verick, Sher., 2013. "Youth employment and unemployment : an Indian perspective," ILO Working Papers 994806863402676, International Labour Organization.
    3. repec:ilo:ilowps:480686 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Neff, Daniel & Sen, Kunal & Kling, Veronika, 2012. "The Puzzling Decline in Rural Women's Labor Force Participation in India: A Reexamination," GIGA Working Papers 196, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
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    1. repec:spr:ijlaec:v:60:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s41027-018-0101-z is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Youth; Employability; Human capital;


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