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Does history matter?: Empirical analysis of evolutionary versus stationary equilibrium views of the economy

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  • Kenneth Carlaw

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  • Richard Lipsey

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Abstract

The evolutionary vision in which history matters is of an evolving economy driven by bursts of technological change initiated by agents facing uncertainty and producing long term, path-dependent growth and shorter-term, non-random investment cycles. The alternative vision in which history does not matter is of a stationary, ergodic process driven by rational agents facing risk and producing stable trend growth and shorter term cycles caused by random disturbances. We use Carlaw and Lipsey’s simulation model of non-stationary, sustained growth driven by endogenous, path-dependent technological change under uncertainty to generate artificial macro data. We match these data to the New Classical stylized growth facts. The raw simulation data pass standard tests for trend and difference stationarity, exhibiting unit roots and cointegrating processes of order one. Thus, contrary to current belief, these tests do not establish that the real data are generated by a stationary process. Real data are then used to estimate time-varying NAIRU’s for six OECD countries. The estimates are shown to be highly sensitive to the time period over which they are made. They also fail to show any relation between the unemployment gap, actual unemployment minus estimated NAIRU and the acceleration of inflation. Thus there is no tendency for inflation to behave as required by the New Keynesian and earlier New Classical theory. We conclude by rejecting the existence of a well-defined a short-run, negatively sloped Philips curve, a NAIRU, a unique general equilibrium, short and long-run, a vertical long-run Phillips curve, and the long-run neutrality of money. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth Carlaw & Richard Lipsey, 2012. "Does history matter?: Empirical analysis of evolutionary versus stationary equilibrium views of the economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 735-766, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joevec:v:22:y:2012:i:4:p:735-766 DOI: 10.1007/s00191-012-0282-4
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-577, Sept.-Oct.
    2. Kenneth I. Carlaw & Richard G. Lipsey, 2006. "Gpt-Driven, Endogenous Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(508), pages 155-174, January.
    3. Lipsey, Richard G. & Carlaw, Kenneth I. & Bekar, Clifford T., 2005. "Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies and Long-Term Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199290895.
    4. Freeman, Chris & Louca, Francisco, 2002. "As Time Goes By: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199251056.
    5. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard G. Lipsey, 2013. "The Phillips Curve and the Tyranny of an Assumed Unique Macro Equilibrium," Discussion Papers dp13-12, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.
    2. Richard G. Lipsey, 2013. "Some contentious issues in theory and policy in memory of Mark Blaug," Chapters,in: Mark Blaug: Rebel with Many Causes, chapter 6, pages 31-62 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. José Francisco Bellod Redondo, 2013. "La NAIRU y la pseudociencia neoliberal," Revista de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, vol. 16, pages 18-43.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Evolutionary economics; NAIRU; New classical economics; Real business cycles; Time series data stationarity; E2; E3; E4; N1; O3; O4;

    JEL classification:

    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • N1 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

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