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Job creation and persistence in services and manufacturing


  • Catherine Armington
  • Zoltan Acs



An important new literature on gross employment flows has produced a great outpouring of stylized facts. In this paper we examine one aspect of this literature through the lens of dynamic models and theories of industrial evolution. We extend the Davis and Haltiwanger methodology for analysis of the persistence of gross job creation, distinguishing the persistence of new jobs from business births and from expansions. The persistence rates are then compared with those expected in each sector if average annual job creation and destruction were distributed across the business population independently of the prior year’s changes. The results provide a basis for discussing aspects of the different dynamics of job creation in services and manufacturing. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 2004

Suggested Citation

  • Catherine Armington & Zoltan Acs, 2004. "Job creation and persistence in services and manufacturing," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 309-325, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joevec:v:14:y:2004:i:3:p:309-325 DOI: 10.1007/s00191-004-0194-z

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, January.
    2. Evans, David S, 1987. "Tests of Alternative Theories of Firm Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(4), pages 657-674, August.
    3. Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger, 1992. "Gross Job Creation, Gross Job Destruction, and Employment Reallocation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(3), pages 819-863.
    4. Julia I. Lane & Alan G. Isaac & David W. Stevens, 1996. "Firm Heterogeneity and Worker Turnover," Labor and Demography 9602001, EconWPA.
    5. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
    6. Richard Ericson & Ariel Pakes, 1995. "Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: A Framework for Empirical Work," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82.
    7. Zoltan J Acs & Catherine Armington, 1998. "Longitudinal Establishment And Enterprise Microdata (LEEM) Documentation," Working Papers 98-9, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    8. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    9. Alfred R Nucci & Timothy Bates, 1990. "An Analysis of Small Business Size and Rate of Discontinuance," Working Papers 90-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    10. Catherine Armington & Alicia Robb & Zoltan J Acs, 1999. "Measures Of Job Flow Dynamics In The U.S.," Working Papers 99-1, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    11. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
    12. Audretsch, David B & Mahmood, Talat, 1994. "Firm Selection and Industry Evolution: The Post-entry Performance of New Firms," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 243-260, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Annamária BENYOVSZKI & Ágnes NAGY & Tünde Petra PETRU, 2013. "Is there a difference between intrapreneurs and early-stage entrepreneurs in Romania?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(6(583)), pages 53-60, June.
    2. Zoltán J. Ács & Pamela Mueller, 2015. "Employment effects of business dynamics: Mice, Gazelles and Elephants," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 16, pages 304-319 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Svein Olav Nås, 2007. "Industrial structure, business demography and innovation," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070611, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
    4. Karl Wennberg, 2009. "Knowledge combinations and the survival of financial services ventures," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 259-276, April.
    5. Marco Corsino & Roberto Gabriele & Sandro Trento, 2010. "Job flows in Italian SMEs: a longitudinal analysis of growth, size and age," DISA Working Papers 1008, Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy, revised 22 Dec 2010.
    6. Delmar, Frédéric & McKelvie, Alexander & Wennberg, Karl, 2013. "Untangling the relationships among growth, profitability and survival in new firms," Ratio Working Papers 205, The Ratio Institute.
    7. McKelvie, Alexander & Brattström, Anna & Wennberg, Karl, 2013. "The Relationship Between Innovation and New Firm Growth," Ratio Working Papers 206, The Ratio Institute.

    More about this item


    Entrepreneurship; Industry evolution; Job flows; Services;

    JEL classification:

    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • L6 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
    • L8 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups


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