IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Human Capital Investment to Achieve Knowledge-Based Economy in ASEAN5: DEA Applications


  • Elsadig Ahmed


  • Geeta Krishnasamy



Over the past few decades, ASEAN countries have achieved varying levels of economic development. In this paper, the nature and extent of productivity changes of ASEAN5 countries, namely, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Singapore, are analysed over the period 1993 to 2006. The Malmquist total factor productivity (TFP) index calculated within the framework of data envelopment analysis is next decomposed into three constituent elements accounting for different sources of productivity growth, which are technological progress, efficiency change and the effects of economies of scale. The analysis is carried out for the sample with and without human capital variable to isolate the impact of human capital investment on TFP growth in these countries. Results indicate that when human capital is included in the model, Malaysia and Singapore reported an increase in TFP and this growth in productivity is derived from both technical efficiency gain and technological progress. The model without human capital shows that there is a TFP reduction in Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand whereas Indonesia and Singapore recorded a growth in TFP. This suggests that human capital investment plays a pivotal role in driving TFP growth in Malaysia. This result will guide appropriate policy formulation in the area of human capital investment. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Elsadig Ahmed & Geeta Krishnasamy, 2013. "Human Capital Investment to Achieve Knowledge-Based Economy in ASEAN5: DEA Applications," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 4(4), pages 331-342, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jknowl:v:4:y:2013:i:4:p:331-342
    DOI: 10.1007/s13132-011-0059-2

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joaquin Millan & Natalia Aldaz, 1998. "Agricultural productivity of the Spanish regions: a non-parametric Malmquist analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(7), pages 875-884.
    2. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor & Lorenzo Serrano, 2000. "Efficiency and Productive Specialization: An Application to the Spanish Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(9), pages 829-842.
    3. Mao, Weining & Koo, Won W., 1997. "Productivity growth, technological progress, and efficiency change in chinese agriculture after rural economic reforms: A DEA approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 157-174.
    4. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    5. Rao, P S & Preston, R S, 1984. "Inter-factor Substitution, Economies of Scale and Technical Change: Evidence from Canadian Industries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 87-111.
    6. Charnes, Abraham & Cooper, William W. & Li, Shanling, 1989. "Using data envelopment analysis to evaluate efficiency in the economic performance of Chinese cities," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 325-344.
    7. Alwyn Young, 1995. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 641-680.
    8. Susan M. Collins & Barry P. Bosworth, 1996. "Economic Growth in East Asia: Accumulation versus Assimilation," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 27(2), pages 135-204.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:jknowl:v:4:y:2013:i:4:p:331-342. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.