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Review of underground logistic systems in the Netherlands: an ex-post evaluation of barriers, enablers and spin-offs

  • Wiegmans, Bart W.
  • Visser, Johan
  • Konings, Rob
  • Pielage, Ben-Jaap A.
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    Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as barriers or enablers. The main conclusions that can be drawn are that the opportunities for try-out were too limited; political support could have been gained on higher levels; the costs were too high, the catchment area was too limited; ULS in itself is a very promising system, but there was no one clear goal. In particular, the lack of a thorough and positive business model in combination with a lack of sufficient freight volumes almost immediately guaranteed the failure of the initiative. The spin-offs seem to have taken place in different directions: ranging from rather soft impacts (e.g. scientific knowledge) to more hard developments (adopting and developing transport and tunnelling technologies), and, although difficult to quantify, they are of great value.

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10077/6157
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    Article provided by ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration in its journal European Transport / Trasporti Europei.

    Volume (Year): (2010)
    Issue (Month): 45 ()
    Pages: 34-49

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    Handle: RePEc:sot:journl:y:2010:i:45:p:34-49
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    1. Worrell, Ernst & Price, Lynn & Martin, Nathan & Farla, Jacco & Schaeffer, Roberto, 1997. "Energy intensity in the iron and steel industry: a comparison of physical and economic indicators," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7-9), pages 727-744.
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