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Behavioural responses to road pricing. Empirical results from a survey among Dutch car owners


  • Ubbels, Barry
  • Verhoef, Erik


This paper presents the results from a questionnaire among Dutch car owners. We have analysed the behavioural responses to three different, policy relevant, road pricing measures. Depending on the type of measure and type of trip affected, we find reductions in the number of car trips of, on average, 11%. A flat kilometre charge affects social trips considerably more than commuting trips. However, when policy makers want to affect peak time (commuting) traffic, a time differentiated measure is more appropriate. Slow traffic and trip suppression are most popular alternatives for non-commuting trips. Departure time changes become very attractive for all purposes when the proposed measure varies over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Ubbels, Barry & Verhoef, Erik, 2005. "Behavioural responses to road pricing. Empirical results from a survey among Dutch car owners," European Transport \ Trasporti Europei, ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration, issue 31, pages 101-117.
  • Handle: RePEc:sot:journl:y:2005:i:31:p:101-117

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bruno De Borger & Stef Proost (ed.), 2001. "Reforming Transport Pricing in the European Union," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1822.
    2. Arnott, Richard & Kraus, Marvin, 1998. "When are anonymous congestion charges consistent with marginal cost pricing?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 45-64, January.
    3. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Henrik Jacobsen Kleven & Claus Thustrup Kreiner, 2003. "The Marginal Cost of Public Funds in OECD Countries. Hours of Work Versus Labor Force Participation," CESifo Working Paper Series 935, CESifo Group Munich.
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    Cited by:

    1. Agarwal, Sumit & Koo, Kang Mo, 2016. "Impact of electronic road pricing (ERP) changes on transport modal choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-11.
    2. repec:eee:transa:v:107:y:2018:i:c:p:52-64 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:transa:v:106:y:2017:i:c:p:440-452 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Li, Zheng & Hensher, David A., 2012. "Congestion charging and car use: A review of stated preference and opinion studies and market monitoring evidence," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 47-61.
    5. Hensher, David A. & Li, Zheng, 2013. "Referendum voting in road pricing reform: A review of the evidence," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 186-197.


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