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The “Soft Five” in Romania


  • Jiří Balcar

    () (RPIC-ViP s.r.o., Výstavní 2224/8, 709 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic)


An employability of individuals became dependent not only on their qualification, but also on their soft skills. Therefore, this paper tries to examine an importance of soft competencies for Romanian labour market and evaluate gap between soft competencies of graduates and unemployed registered at Employment Offices and employers’ requirements. The survey among 277 employers (representing 36,268 employees) was realized in 7 NUTS-3 regions of Romania in March 2011 to ensure relevant information. The results shows the necessity of development of competencies for customer orientation, efficiency, problem solving, effective communication and planning and organizing, which are simultaneously the most important for work performance and the least developed. This output represents an important input for an adaptation of current formal education curricula.

Suggested Citation

  • Jiří Balcar, 2012. " The “Soft Five” in Romania," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 15(43), pages 23-44, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:rej:journl:v:15:y:2012:i:43:p:23-44

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nauro F. Campos & Dean Jolliffe, 2002. "After, Before and During: Returns to Education in the Hungarian Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 475, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    2. Borghans,Lex & Weel,Bas,ter & Weinberg,Bruce, 2005. "People People: Social Capital and the Labor-Market Outcomes of Underrepresented Groups," ROA Research Memorandum 002, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
    3. Jiří Balcar & Lenka Janíčková & Lenka Filipová, 2014. "What General Competencies Are Required from the Czech Labour Force?," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2014(2), pages 250-265.
    4. Jones, Derek C. & Ilayperuma Simon, Kosali, 2005. "Wage determination under plan and early transition: Bulgarian evidence using matched employer-employee data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 227-243, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wendy V. Cunningham & Paula Villaseñor, 2016. "Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy Connecting the Labor and Education Sectors," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 102-134.
    2. Jiri Balcar, 2013. "Soft Competencies in Bulgaria," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 2, pages 88-99, April.

    More about this item


    eSoft competencies; employability; work performance; training and education.;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity


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