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Reforma estructural, contención de los salarios y ganancias del capital: la experiencia mexicana


  • Alicia Puyana

    () (Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales)

  • José Romero

    () (El Colegio de México)


In Mexico, wages have stagnated and profits have increased since 1980. This paper analyzes the causes of this performance both at an aggregate and sectorial level. Although in theory trade liberalization should have led to increased wages and a reduction of profits, an unlimited supply of labor prevented wages from increasing and transformed productivity gains in higher returns on capital. Growth of qualified employment was not the result of generalized technological advances; it reflected changes in the composition of labor supply. Higher investment in human capital does not necessarily lead to higher productivity or income. If the improvement in education of the labor force is to generate higher productivity, a public policy of stimulus for economic growth is required.

Suggested Citation

  • Alicia Puyana & José Romero, 2005. "Reforma estructural, contención de los salarios y ganancias del capital: la experiencia mexicana," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 7(12), pages 63-95, January-J.
  • Handle: RePEc:rei:ecoins:v:7:y:2005:i:12:p:63-95

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gordon H. Hanson, 2003. "What Has Happened to Wages in Mexico since NAFTA?," NBER Working Papers 9563, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. William Easterly & Norbert Fiess & Daniel Lederman, 2003. "NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Fall 2003), pages 1-53, August.
    3. Krugman, Paul R., 2000. "Technology, trade and factor prices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 51-71, February.
    4. Hanson, G.H. & Harrison, A., 1995. "Trade, Technology and Wage Inequality," Papers 95-20, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
    5. Deininger, Klaus & Olinto, Pedro, 2000. "Asset distribution, inequality, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2375, The World Bank.
    6. Edward E. Leamer, 1996. "In Search of Stolper-Samuelson Effects on U.S. Wages," NBER Working Papers 5427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    wage; profit; skills; technology; liberalization;

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D


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