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Réformes de la fiscalité du capital en Europe

  • Stéphane Guimbert
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    [fre] La mobilité du capital, notamment au sein de l'Union européenne, semble avoir motivé de nombreuses réformes de la fiscalité du capital en Europe, parce que son renforcement limiterait les possibilités des Etats de taxer ce facteur mobile. Pourtant, aucune baisse généralisée des taux effectifs de taxation du capital, un des principaux signes qui devraient traduire une forte « concurrence fiscale », n'est observée. Cet article propose un panorama d'autres motivations, domestiques et non internationales, des réformes fiscales. Malgré tout, l'analyse des effets de la mobilité croissante du capital, s'ils doivent être nuancés, amène à considérer les possibilités de coordination des politiques fiscales. L'examen des scénarios récemment proposés par la Commission européenne conduit en particulier à considérer un impôt européen sur les entreprises. [eng] Capital mobility, especially across European countries, may have been the main rationale for many capital tax reforms in Europe since a more mobile capital should limit States' ability to tax capital. Yet, no generalized decrease in effective tax rates on capital has been observed even though such a decrease would be the main sign of « tax competition ». In this article, domestic, in addition to international, justifications for capital tax reforms are outlined. Nevertheless, even qualified, the effects of a higher capital mobility suggest that ways to coordinate tax policy should be considered. By analyzing the European Commission's recent proposals, this article also considers a European corporate tax.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/rfeco.2002.1523
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/rfeco_0769-0479_2002_num_16_4_1523
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 16 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 113-169

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2002_num_16_4_1523
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2002.1523
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/rfeco

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    1. Baldwin, Richard E. & Krugman, Paul, 2004. "Agglomeration, integration and tax harmonisation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-23, February.
    2. Eijffinger, Sylvester C W & Wagner, Wolf, 2001. "Taxation if Capital is Not Perfectly Mobile: Tax Competition versus Tax Exportation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3084, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Mintz, Jack & Smart, Michael, 2004. "Income shifting, investment, and tax competition: theory and evidence from provincial taxation in Canada," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(6), pages 1149-1168, June.
    4. Dehejia, Vivek H. & Genschel, Philipp, 1998. "Tax competition in the European Union," MPIfG Discussion Paper 98/3, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    5. Goolsbee, Austan, 2000. "The Importance of Measurement Error in the Cost of Capital," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 53(n. 2), pages 215-28, June.
    6. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd, 2001. "Why is there so little tax coordination? The role of majority voting and international tax evasion," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2-3), pages 299-317, April.
    7. Austan Goolsbee, 2000. "The Importance of Measurement Error in the Cost of Capital," NBER Working Papers 7558, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Richard Miller Bird, 1999. "Rethinking Subnational Taxes; A New Look At Tax Assignment," IMF Working Papers 99/165, International Monetary Fund.
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