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L'allocation de la voirie dans les centres-villes

  • Jean-Marc Aubert
  • Laure Tourjansky-Cabart
Registered author(s):

    [eng] In order to limit the development of traffic congestion, local authorities in numerous cities have tried to encourage the use of public transport. Suchpolicies raise the question of how city centre public highways are to be allocated between several alternative uses, notably car traffic, bus lanesor parking space. Calculations of the value of public highways, which is central to these debates, are limited. By adapting the bottleneck model, developed by Arnott and de Palma, this article attempts to shed light on the question and proposes an opportunity cost evaluation of the uses of public highways. In city centres, where congestion is heavy and there is fierce competition between alternative uses of the public highways, the establishment of dedicated zones for public transport should only apply to the main routes where they will be fully utilised. Given the high cost to local authorities, parking on public highways should be limited or be charged according to that cost. [fre] Pour limiter le développement de la congestion automobile, les autorités de nombreuses villes ont tenté de favoriser les transports en commun. Une telle politique pose la question de l'allocation de la voirie dans les centres-villes entre plusieurs usages alternatifs, notamment circulation automobile, couloir-bus ou stationnement. L'estimation de la valeur de la voirie, qui est au cœur de ces arbitrages, reste limitée. En adaptant le modèle de goulot développé par Arnott et Palma, cet article tente d'apporter des éléments d'éclairage sur cette question et propose une évaluation du coût d'opportunité des utilisations de la voirie. En centre- ville, là où la congestion est forte et où il existe une concurrence vive entre les utilisations alternatives de la voirie, la mise en place de sites propres réservés aux transports en commun devrait concerner les axes sur lesquels le trafic qu'ils assurent est suffisant. Le stationnement sur voirie devrait être limité étant donné son coût élevé pour la collectivité, ou tarifé conformément à ce coût.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/rfeco.2000.1493
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/rfeco_0769-0479_2000_num_15_2_1493
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 157-194

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2000_num_15_2_1493
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2000.1493
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/rfeco

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    1. de Palma, A. & Marchal, F., 1998. "Evaluation of New Transport Demand Management Measures on the City of Geneva with the Use of Innovative Dynamic Traffic Models," Papers 9802, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
    2. Dahlgren, Joy, 1998. "High occupancy vehicle lanes: Not always more effective than general purpose lanes," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 99-114, February.
    3. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1990. "Economics of a bottleneck," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 111-130, January.
    4. Alain Bonnafous, 1996. "Le système des transports urbains," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 294(1), pages 99-108.
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