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Ouverture commerciale et emploi. Un modèle d'équilibre général avec salaires d'efficience appliqué à la Tunisie


  • Mohamed Ali Marouani


[fre] Dans le cadre d'un modèle d'équilibre général multisectoriel, nous modélisons les écarts de salaires intersectoriels en recourant à la théorie du contrôle imparfait des travailleurs. Le modèle est utilisé pour évaluer l'impact de l'ouverture de l'économie tunisienne sur l'emploi et les salaires. Les principaux perdants sont les travailleurs très qualifiés en raison de leur spécialisation qui réduit leur mobilité à court terme. Nous montrons, par ailleurs, que les résultats diffèrent de ceux obtenus avec un modèle à différentiels de salaires exogènes, en termes d'emplois, mais surtout en termes de distribution des revenus entre les différentes catégories de travailleurs. Cela est dû principalement à l'arbitrage salaires/emplois différent dans les deux modèles. La variable d'équilibre du marché du travail est le chômage dans le modèle à salaires d'efficience, alors que le salaire moyen constitue la variable d'ajustement dans le modèle à différentiels de salaires exogènes. [eng] Trade openess and employment: a general equilibrium model with efficiency wages applied to Tunisia. . Within a multisectoral general equilibrium framework, we explicitly model endogenous wage differentials between sectors. The model, based on efficiency wage theory (the Shirking Model) is used to assess the impact of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisia. Highly skilled workers are the main losers because their specialization reduces their mobility in the short run. We show that the results are different from those obtained with an exogenous wage differentials CGE model in terms of employment, but also mainly in terms of income distribution among the different categories of workers. These findings are explained by the different labour market closures in the two models: Unemployment is the equilibrating variable in the efficiency wage model, while it is the average wage in the exogenous wage differentials model.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohamed Ali Marouani, 2000. "Ouverture commerciale et emploi. Un modèle d'équilibre général avec salaires d'efficience appliqué à la Tunisie," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(3), pages 557-569.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_2000_num_51_3_410536
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.2000.410536

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pierre-Richard Agénor, 1995. "The Labor Market and Economic Adjustment," IMF Working Papers 95/125, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Relative Wages, Efficiency Wages, and Keynesian Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 383-388, May.
    3. Anne Perrot & André Zylberberg, 1989. "Salaire d'efficience et dualisme du marché du travail," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 40(1), pages 5-20.
    4. Bulow, Jeremy I & Summers, Lawrence H, 1986. "A Theory of Dual Labor Markets with Application to Industrial Policy,Discrimination, and Keynesian Unemployment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages 376-414, July.
    5. George A. Akerlof, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-569.
    6. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-444, June.
    7. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sylvain Chabe-Ferret & Julien Gourdon & Mohamed Ali Marouani & Tancrède Voituriez, 2007. "Trade-Induced Changes in Economic Inequality: Assessment Issues and Policy Implications for Developing Countries," Working Papers DT/2007/11, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    2. Jean-Raphael Chaponniere & Jean-Pierre Cling & Mohamed Ali Marouani, 2004. "Les conséquences pour les pays en développement de la suppression des quotas dans le textile habillement : le cas de la Tunisie," Working Papers DT/2004/16, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation), revised Dec 2004.
    3. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4331 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:got:cegedp:39 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Marouani, Mohamed A., 2005. "The Impact of the Multifiber Agreement Phaseout on Unemployment in Tunisia: A Prospective Dynamic Analysis," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 39, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4443 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Philippe Adair & Ali Abdallah, 2015. "Overcapacities in the Tunisian tourism industry," Post-Print hal-01667222, HAL.

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