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Politique d'ajustement et développement agricole

  • Patrick Guillaumont

[fre] Cet article examine les principales relations entre les politiques d'ajustement et les performances agricoles durant les années 80, en considérant plus particulièrement le cas des pays africains. Certes, logiquement, l'ajustement devrait favoriser le développement agricole, mais selon la façon dont elles sont mises en œuvre, les principales mesures de politique économique peuvent ou non conduire aux résultats attendus. Une attention particulière est donnée à la politique du taux de change (une forte dépréciation monétaire paraissant souvent et paradoxalement associée à un déclin des prix réels payés aux producteurs), à la libéralisation du commerce (et aux conditions d'une stabilisation efficace des prix aux producteurs), à la politique budgétaire (la diminution du déficit budgétaire a des conséquences sur le secteur agricole qui varient selon la nature des augmentations d'impôts ou des réductions des dépenses publiques). [eng] Adjustment policy and agricultural development This paper surveys the main relations between adjustment policy and agricultural performance during the eighties, with special focus to African countries. First it shows why logically adjustment may favour agricultural development. Then it considers why the implementation of the main policy measures may not lead to the expected results. Special attention is given to the exchange rate policy (a strong currency depreciation is often associated with a decline in real producer prices), to the trade liberalization (and the conditions of an efficient producer price stabilization) and to the fiscal policy (decreasing fiscal deficit has different consequences on the agricultural sector depending on the tax increases and expenditures cuts).

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie rurale.

Volume (Year): 216 (1993)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 20-29

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Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_1993_num_216_1_4548
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.1993.4548
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  1. Patrick Guillaumont & Catherine Bonjean, 1991. "Fonctions de comportement de l'Etat dans la détermination des prix au producteur pour les cultures d'exportation," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 97(1), pages 61-68.
  2. Knudsen, Odin & Nash, John, 1990. "Domestic Price Stabilization Schemes in Developing Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 539-58, April.
  3. Berg, Elliot, 1989. "The liberalization of rice marketing in Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 719-728, May.
  4. William Jaeger & Charles Humphreys, 1988. "The Effect of Policy Reforms on Agricultural Incentives in Sub-Saharan Africa," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 70(5), pages 1036-1043.
  5. Krueger, Anne O & Schiff, Maurice & Valdes, Alberto, 1988. "Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 255-71, September.
  6. Lele, Uma, 1989. "Sources of Growth in East African Agriculture," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 3(1), pages 119-44, January.
  7. Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney, 1988. "Dévaluer en Afrique ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 25(1), pages 123-143.
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