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L’épargne retraite en France : état des lieux et finalités d’une réforme

  • Arnaud Lechevalier
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    [fre] La période contemporaine est marquée par un haut niveau d’épargne des ménages et par la modification de sa structure au profit d’une épargne longue et stable. C’est dans ce contexte, qui devrait perdurer, qu’est posée la question de la réforme de l’épargne-retraite en France, qui se développe jusqu’à présent dans l’opacité, sans stratégie cohérente et dans l’inégalité. Dans cette perspective, la première partie s’attache à décrire les principaux canaux et supports par lesquels transite l’épargne-retraite en France. La seconde partie est consacrée à une évaluation des principaux arguments qui ont été mis en avant, suivant des logiques contrastées, pour défendre la nécessité d’un accroissement de l’épargne-retraite. Au regard de cette analyse critique et des problèmes posés par les dispositifs existants, deux solutions, visant à modifier la structure de l’épargne, paraissent envisageables : une réforme en profondeur de l’épargne salariale et le développement, dans une optique d’équité intergénérationnelle, du « fonds de réserve » récemment créé dans le cadre des régimes publics. . Classification JEL : G23, J26 [eng] Retirement Savings in France : assessment and the goals of reform . The contemporary period is characterized by a high level of household savings and a structural shift toward more long-term and stable patterns of savings. It is in this context, expected to prove enduring, that the issue of retirement savings reform has been raised in France, developing unequally until now in the absence of transparency or coherent strategy. In this perspective, the first part seeks to describe the principal channels and supports which retirement savings pass through in France, while in each case evaluating their potential for development and their suitability with regard to the objective sought after. The second part focuses on an evaluation of the principal arguments which, on the basis of contrasting lines of reasoning, have been put forward to defend the need for growth in retirement savings. On the basis of this critical analysis and the problems raised by various aspects of the existing system, two solutions for modifying the structure of savings appear conceivable : a thorough-going reform of wage-earner savings and the development, with a view to intergenerational equity, of the « reserve fund » recently created within the framework of public pensions system. JEL Classification : G23, J26

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue d'économie financière.

    Volume (Year): 56 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 217-240

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:recofi:ecofi_0987-3368_2000_num_56_1_3822
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecofi.2000.3822
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecofi

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    1. Henri Sterdyniak & Gaël Dupont & Alexis Dantec, 1999. "Les retraites en France : que faire ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 68(1), pages 19-81.
    2. Bertrand Villeneuve & Didier Blanchet, 1997. "Que reste-t-il du débat répartition-capitalisation ?," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 40(2), pages 157-174.
    3. Jeanine Bailliu & Helmut Reisen, 1997. "Do Funded Pensions Contribute to Higher Aggregate Savings?: A Cross-Country Analysis," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 130, OECD Publishing.
    4. El Mekkaoui de Freitas, Najat, 1997. "Comportements financiers des fonds de pension dans les pays de l'OCDE," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/13048, Paris Dauphine University.
    5. Arnaud Lechevalier, 1999. "La réforme des retraites publiques en Allemagne," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 68(1), pages 83-125.
    6. André Masson & Luc Arrondel, 1996. "Gestion du risque et comportements patrimoniaux," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 296(1), pages 63-89.
    7. Brigitte Dormont & Pierre Cahuc, 1992. "Les effets d'incitation de l'intéressement : la productivité plutôt que l'emploi," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 257(1), pages 45-56.
    8. Jérôme Adda, 1995. "Allocation intertemporelle de la consommation, développements récents," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 121(5), pages 1-18.
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