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Inégalités, biais de progrès technique et imperfections de marché en France de 1974 à 1993

  • Anne Saint-Martin
  • Jean-Pierre Laffargue
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    [eng] Biases, Market Imperfections and Inequalities France by Jean-Pierre Laffargue and Anne Saint Martin . Over the last twenty years, the main French production factor trends (labour and capital) have been hard to reconcile with their respective cost trends. This paper uses a medium-run dynamic structural equilibrium model to try to explain some of these contradictions in terms of changes that have occurred in the different economic players' macroeconomic and institutional environments. We come up with a number of findings. Unskilled labour is highly substitutable for skilled labour and capital. Skilled labour is not very substitutable for capital. The efficiency of skilled labour increases faster than the productivity trend, but the productivity of unskilled labour stagnates. The mark-up rate of firms falls sharply after 1982. Trade union bargaining power grows from 1974 to 1983, and recedes thereafter. We also compute the dynamic multipliers of the main economic policy decisions, and the effects on employment of changes to these policies since 1974. These changes seem to have played a limited role in the growth in unemployment, which appears to be due essentially to structural shocks on labour supply and demand. [fre] Biais de progrès technique, imperfections de marché et inégalités en France par Jean-Pierre Laffargue et Anne Saint Martin . Au cours de ces vingt dernières années, les principaux facteurs de production (travail et capital) ont connu, en France, une évolution qu'il semble difficile de réconcilier avec celle de leurs coûts respectifs, à partir d'un modèle d'équilibre structurel ou chaque équation repose sur un comportement ou une contrainte au sens économique clair. Partant d'un modèle d'équilibre structurel dynamique de moyen terme, cet article tente d' expliquer certaines de ces contradictions par le biais de modifications intervenues, au cours de cette période, au sein même de l'environnement macroéconomique et institutionnel dans lequel agissent les différents acteurs de l'économie. Nos résultats sont que le travail non qualifié est très substituable au travail qualifié et au capital, que le travail qualifié est peu substituable au capital, que l'efficience du travail qualifié augmente plus vite que la productivité tendancielle apparente, alors que l'efficience du travail non qualifié stagne, que le taux de marge des entreprises baisse fortement après 1982, et que le pouvoir de négociation des syndicats augmente de 1974 à 1983 pour diminuer ensuite. Les multiplicateurs dynamiques des principales mesures de politique économique sont aussi calculés, ainsi que les effets sur l'emploi des altérations de ces politiques depuis 1974. Ces dernières semblent avoir joué un rôle limité dans l'évolution du chômage, qui apparaît résulter essentiellement de chocs structurels sur l'offre et la demande de travail.

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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

    Volume (Year): 138 (1999)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 89-109

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_1999_num_138_2_5961
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.1999.5961
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    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Mohamad L. Hammour, 1997. "Jobless Growth: Appropriability, Factor Substitution, and Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 6221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jean-Pierre Laffargue, 1996. "Fiscalité, charges sociales, qualifications et emploi," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 125(4), pages 87-105.
    3. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 1987. "Monopolistic Competition and the Effects of Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 647-66, September.
    4. Berman, Eli & Bound, John & Griliches, Zvi, 1994. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(2), pages 367-97, May.
    5. John M. ABOWD & Laurence ALLAIN, 1996. "Compensation Structure and Product Market Competition," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 41-42, pages 207-217.
    6. Marianne Pauchet & Brigitte Dormont, 1997. "L'élasticité de l'emploi au coût salarial dépend-elle des structures de qualification ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 301(1), pages 149-168.
    7. repec:cai:recosp:reco_p1997_48n5_1061 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Oliver J. Blanchard, 1997. "The Medium Run," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 28(2), pages 89-158.
    9. Franck PORTIER, 1995. "Business Formation and Cyclical Markups in the French Business Cycle," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 37-38, pages 411-440.
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