IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The Determinants of Interdistrict Labour In-migration in Pakistan, 1971-1980

Listed author(s):
  • Andrew P. Barkley

    (Department of Agricultural Economics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.)

The movement of labour from one location to another in Pakistan has increased in recent years. This article begins by reviewing the previous literature pertinent to labour migration within Pakistan. Next, a migration equation at the aggregate level is specified, based on the expected socio-economic determinants of labour migration and data availability. Regression analysis was used to identify and quantify the determinants of interdistrict migration in Pakistan during the period 1971-1980. The results demonstrate that one of the major determinants of migration into a district was the percent of previous migrants nyi district's population. Interdistrict migration was also significantly associated with the socio-economic variables of urbanization, population density, and literacy rates. The research presented here provides evjdence that the movement of labour between districts in Pakistan is towards locations of superior socio-economic conditions. Migration was found to become more responsive to urbanization, population density, and literacy rates over time, and less responsive to previous migration over time. Given the huge increase in productivity in the agricultural sector brought about by the Green Revolution, the movement of workers out of agricultural areas and into industrial areas is expected to continue into the future. This rural-to-urban flow may be limited by the level of population density; crowded living conditions were found to be negatively associated with labour migration.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 30 (1991)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 275-296

in new window

Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:30:y:1991:i:3:p:275-296
Contact details of provider: Postal:
P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000

Phone: (92)(51)9248051
Fax: (92)(51)9248065
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

in new window

  1. Nabi, Ijaz, 1984. "Village-end considerations in rural-urban migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 129-145.
  2. Andrew P. Barkley, 1990. "The Determinants of the Migration of Labor out of Agriculture in the United States, 1940–85," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 72(3), pages 567-573.
  3. Mohammad Irfan, 1986. "Migration and Development in Pakistan. Some Selected Issues," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 743-755.
  4. Mohammad, Irfan & Demery, Lionel & Ghulam Mohammad, Arif & Farooqui, Furqan Ahmad & Tariq, Javed & Haq, Rashida & Khan, Ghani, 1983. "Migration Patterns in Pakistan: Preliminary Results from the PLM Survey, 1979," MPRA Paper 39606, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Yap, Lorene Y. L., 1977. "The attraction of cities : A review of the migration literature," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 239-264, September.
  6. Fields, Gary S., 1975. "Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 165-187, June.
  7. Mundlak, Yair, 1979. "Intersectoral factor mobility and agricultural growth:," Research reports 6, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:30:y:1991:i:3:p:275-296. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.