IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Exploring the determinants of energy poverty in Indonesia’s households: empirical evidence from the 2015–2019 SUSENAS


  • Novani Karina Saputri

    (Universitas Indonesia)

  • Lourentius Dimas Setyonugroho

    (Universitas Indonesia)

  • Djoni Hartono

    (Universitas Indonesia
    Universitas Indonesia)


This study explores the determinants of household-level energy poverty in Indonesia by using highly granular, household-level socioeconomic data on Indonesia from the 2015–2019 National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSENAS). This study utilizes two distinct methods to assess energy poverty in Indonesia with regard to accessibility, aiming to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the issue. Using logistic regression with the combination of district-level fixed effects and interactions between regional and yearly terms, this study finds that, in general, the likelihood of a household being under energy poverty is negatively associated with household expenditure, dwelling size, family size, full-time employment status, and the marital status and educational attainment of the household head, while the associations with other determinants, such as the gender of the household head and LPG and electricity prices, are positive. These associations between the incidence of energy poverty and households’ socioeconomic and demographic variables, as well as the prices of modern and alternative energy, are in parallel with the findings from other similar studies that have been conducted in other developing countries or regions. Furthermore, this study finds some substantial variations in the estimation results for Java and outside Java.

Suggested Citation

  • Novani Karina Saputri & Lourentius Dimas Setyonugroho & Djoni Hartono, 2024. "Exploring the determinants of energy poverty in Indonesia’s households: empirical evidence from the 2015–2019 SUSENAS," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 1-12, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:palcom:v:11:y:2024:i:1:d:10.1057_s41599-023-02514-z
    DOI: 10.1057/s41599-023-02514-z

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Erol, Umit & Yu, Eden S. H., 1987. "Time series analysis of the causal relationships between U.S. energy and employment," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 75-89, June.
    2. Dubin, Jeffrey A & McFadden, Daniel L, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Residential Electric Appliance Holdings and Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 345-362, March.
    3. Sharma, Sangeeta V. & Han, Phoumin & Sharma, Vinod K., 2019. "Socio-economic determinants of energy poverty amongst Indian households: A case study of Mumbai," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 1184-1190.
    4. Crentsil, Aba Obrumah & Asuman, Derek & Fenny, Ama Pokuaa, 2019. "Assessing the determinants and drivers of multidimensional energy poverty in Ghana," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    5. Poortinga, Wouter & Steg, Linda & Vlek, Charles & Wiersma, Gerwin, 2003. "Household preferences for energy-saving measures: A conjoint analysis," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 49-64, February.
    6. Israel, Debra, 2002. "Fuel Choice in Developing Countries: Evidence from Bolivia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(4), pages 865-890, July.
    7. Heltberg, Rasmus, 2005. "Factors determining household fuel choice in Guatemala," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 337-361, June.
    8. Renner, Sebastian & Lay, Jann & Schleicher, Michael, 2019. "The effects of energy price changes: heterogeneous welfare impacts and energy poverty in Indonesia," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 180-200, April.
    9. Recep Ulucak & Ramazan Sari & Seyfettin Erdogan & Rui Alexandre Castanho, 2021. "Bibliometric Literature Analysis of a Multi-Dimensional Sustainable Development Issue: Energy Poverty," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(17), pages 1-21, August.
    10. Abre-Rehmat Qurat-ul-Ann & Faisal Mehmood Mirza, 2021. "Determinants of multidimensional energy poverty in Pakistan: a household level analysis," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(8), pages 12366-12410, August.
    11. Franz Fuerst & Dimitra Kavarnou & Ramandeep Singh & Hassan Adan, 2020. "Determinants of energy consumption and exposure to energy price risk: a UK study [Determinanten des Energieverbrauchs und Energiepreisrisiko: Eine Studie aus Großbritannien]," Zeitschrift für Immobilienökonomie (German Journal of Real Estate Research), Springer;Gesellschaft für Immobilienwirtschaftliche Forschung e. V., vol. 6(1), pages 65-80, April.
    12. Sambodo, Maxensius Tri & Novandra, Rio, 2019. "The state of energy poverty in Indonesia and its impact on welfare," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 113-121.
    13. Boqiang Lin & Michael Adu Okyere, 2020. "Multidimensional Energy Poverty and Mental Health: Micro-Level Evidence from Ghana," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(18), pages 1-18, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tiwari, Sunil & Si Mohammed, Kamel & Guesmi, Khaled, 2023. "A way forward to end energy poverty in China: Role of carbon-cutting targets and net-zero commitments," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 180(C).
    2. Dong, Kangyin & Ren, Xiaohang & Zhao, Jun, 2021. "How does low-carbon energy transition alleviate energy poverty in China? A nonparametric panel causality analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C).
    3. Muhammad Sharif & Farzana Naheed Khan, 2023. "Unveiling the Implications of Energy Poverty for Educational Attainments in Pakistan: A Multidimensional Analysis," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 13(5), pages 472-483, September.
    4. Huang, Yatao & Jiao, Wenxian & Wang, Kang & Li, Erling & Yan, Yutong & Chen, Jingyang & Guo, Xuanxuan, 2022. "Examining the multidimensional energy poverty trap and its determinants: An empirical analysis at household and community levels in six provinces of China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C).
    5. Husnain, Muhammad Iftikhar ul & Nasrullah, Nasrullah & Khan, Muhammad Aamir & Banerjee, Suvajit, 2021. "Scrutiny of income related drivers of energy poverty: A global perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C).
    6. Lozano, Lorafe & Taboada, Evelyn B., 2020. "Demystifying the authentic attributes of electricity-poor populations: The electrification landscape of rural off-grid island communities in the Philippines," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 145(C).
    7. Zhao, Yujia & Shuai, Jing & Wang, Chaofan & Shuai, Chuanmin & Cheng, Xin & Wang, Yilan & Zhang, Zumeng & Ding, Liping & Zhu, Yongguang & Zhou, Na, 2023. "Do the photovoltaic poverty alleviation programs alleviate local energy poverty? —Empirical evidence of 9 counties in rural China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 263(PD).
    8. Bezerra, Paula & Cruz, Talita & Mazzone, Antonella & Lucena, André F.P. & De Cian, Enrica & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2022. "The multidimensionality of energy poverty in Brazil: A historical analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 171(C).
    9. Junhong Qu & Xiaoli Hao, 2022. "Digital Economy, Financial Development, and Energy Poverty Based on Mediating Effects and a Spatial Autocorrelation Model," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(15), pages 1-24, July.
    10. van der Kroon, Bianca & Brouwer, Roy & van Beukering, Pieter J.H., 2013. "The energy ladder: Theoretical myth or empirical truth? Results from a meta-analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 504-513.
    11. Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Behera, Bhagirath & Ali, Akhter, 2016. "Patterns and determinants of household use of fuels for cooking: Empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 117(P1), pages 93-104.
    12. Sen, Kanchan Kumar & Karmaker, Shamal Chandra & Hosan, Shahadat & Chapman, Andrew J. & Uddin, Md Kamal & Saha, Bidyut Baran, 2023. "Energy poverty alleviation through financial inclusion: Role of gender in Bangladesh," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 282(C).
    13. Schleich, Joachim & Gassmann, Xavier & Faure, Corinne & Meissner, Thomas, 2016. "Making the implicit explicit: A look inside the implicit discount rate," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 321-331.
    14. Miah, Md.Danesh & Foysal, Muhammad Abul & Koike, Masao & Kobayashi, Hajime, 2011. "Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3757-3765, June.
    15. Ward, David O. & Clark, Christopher D. & Jensen, Kimberly L. & Yen, Steven T. & Russell, Clifford S., 2011. "Factors influencing willingness-to-pay for the ENERGY STAR® label," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1450-1458, March.
    16. Dimitris Damigos & Christina Kaliampakou & Anastasios Balaskas & Lefkothea Papada, 2021. "Does Energy Poverty Affect Energy Efficiency Investment Decisions? First Evidence from a Stated Choice Experiment," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(6), pages 1-17, March.
    17. Han, Phoumin & Kimura, Fukunari & Sandu, Suwin, 2020. "Household-level analysis of the impacts of electricity consumption on welfare and the environment in Cambodia: Empirical evidence and policy implications," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 476-483.
    18. Rahut, Dil Bahadur & Behera, Bhagirath & Ali, Akhter & Marenya, Paswel, 2017. "A ladder within a ladder: Understanding the factors influencing a household's domestic use of electricity in four African countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 167-181.
    19. Rui Xing & Tatsuya Hanaoka & Yuko Kanamori & Toshihiko Masui, 2017. "Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollutant Emissions of China’s Residential Sector: The Importance of Considering Energy Transition," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(4), pages 1-17, April.
    20. Fu Wang & Hong Geng & Donglan Zha & Chaoqun Zhang, 2023. "Multidimensional Energy Poverty in China: Measurement and Spatio-Temporal Disparities Characteristics," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 168(1), pages 45-78, August.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:palcom:v:11:y:2024:i:1:d:10.1057_s41599-023-02514-z. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.