IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pal/jorsoc/v60y2009i8d10.1057_palgrave.jors.2602641.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Misclassification cost minimizing fitness functions for genetic algorithm-based artificial neural network classifiers

Author

Listed:
  • P Pendharkar

    (Penn State University at Harrisburg)

Abstract

We study three different approaches to formulate a misclassification cost minimizing genetic algorithm (GA) fitness function for a GA-neural network classifier. These three different approaches include a fitness function that directly minimizes total misclassification cost, a fitness function that uses posterior probability for minimizing total misclassification cost and a hybrid fitness function that uses an average value of the first two fitness functions to minimize total misclassification cost. Using simulated data sets representing three different distributions and four different misclassification cost matrices, we test the performance of the three fitness functions on a two-group classification problem. Our results indicate that the posterior probability-based misclassification cost minimizing function and the hybrid fitness function are less prone to training data over fitting, but direct misclassification cost minimizing fitness function provides the lowest overall misclassification cost in training tests. For holdout sample tests, when cost asymmetries are low (less than or equal to a ratio of 1:2), the hybrid misclassification cost minimizing fitness function yields the best results; however, when cost asymmetries are high (equal or greater than a ratio of 1:4), the total misclassification cost minimizing function provides the best results. We validate our findings using a real-world data on a bankruptcy prediction problem.

Suggested Citation

  • P Pendharkar, 2009. "Misclassification cost minimizing fitness functions for genetic algorithm-based artificial neural network classifiers," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 60(8), pages 1123-1134, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jorsoc:v:60:y:2009:i:8:d:10.1057_palgrave.jors.2602641
    DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602641
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602641
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602641?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pendharkar, Parag C., 2001. "An empirical study of design and testing of hybrid evolutionary-neural approach for classification," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 361-374, August.
    2. Pendharkar, Parag C., 2002. "A computational study on the performance of artificial neural networks under changing structural design and data distribution," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 155-177, April.
    3. C. Vale & Vincent Maurelli, 1983. "Simulating multivariate nonnormal distributions," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 465-471, September.
    4. Catherine K. Murphy & Michel Benaroch, 1997. "Adding Value to Induced Decision Trees for Time-Sensitive Data," INFORMS Journal on Computing, INFORMS, vol. 9(4), pages 385-396, November.
    5. Kar Yan Tam & Melody Y. Kiang, 1992. "Managerial Applications of Neural Networks: The Case of Bank Failure Predictions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(7), pages 926-947, July.
    6. Altman, Edward I. & Marco, Giancarlo & Varetto, Franco, 1994. "Corporate distress diagnosis: Comparisons using linear discriminant analysis and neural networks (the Italian experience)," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 505-529, May.
    7. Altman, Edward I. & Haldeman, Robert G. & Narayanan, P., 1977. "ZETATM analysis A new model to identify bankruptcy risk of corporations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 29-54, June.
    8. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, September.
    9. Vijay S. Mookerjee & Michael V. Mannino, 2000. "Mean-Risk Trade-Offs in Inductive Expert Systems," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 11(2), pages 137-158, June.
    10. Ohlson, Ja, 1980. "Financial Ratios And The Probabilistic Prediction Of Bankruptcy," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 109-131.
    11. Vijay S. Mookerjee & Michael V. Mannino, 1997. "Redesigning Case Retrieval to Reduce Information Acquisition Costs," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 8(1), pages 51-68, March.
    12. Michael V. Mannino & Vijay S. Mookerjee, 1999. "Optimizing Expert Systems: Heuristics for Efficiently Generating Low-Cost Information Acquisition Strategies," INFORMS Journal on Computing, INFORMS, vol. 11(3), pages 278-291, August.
    13. Vijay S. Mookerjee & Brian L. Dos Santos, 1993. "Inductive Expert System Design: Maximizing System Value," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 4(2), pages 111-140, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Parag Pendharkar & Sudhir Nanda, 2006. "A misclassification cost‐minimizing evolutionary–neural classification approach," Naval Research Logistics (NRL), John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(5), pages 432-447, August.
    2. du Jardin, Philippe & Séverin, Eric, 2011. "Predicting corporate bankruptcy using a self-organizing map: An empirical study to improve the forecasting horizon of a financial failure model," MPRA Paper 44262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Parag C. Pendharkar, 2011. "Probabilistic Approaches For Credit Screening And Bankruptcy Prediction," Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 177-193, October.
    4. Şaban Çelik, 2013. "Micro Credit Risk Metrics: A Comprehensive Review," Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 233-272, October.
    5. du Jardin, Philippe, 2010. "Predicting bankruptcy using neural networks and other classification methods: the influence of variable selection techniques on model accuracy," MPRA Paper 44375, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Sun, Lili & Shenoy, Prakash P., 2007. "Using Bayesian networks for bankruptcy prediction: Some methodological issues," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 180(2), pages 738-753, July.
    7. Beynon, Malcolm J. & Peel, Michael J., 2001. "Variable precision rough set theory and data discretisation: an application to corporate failure prediction," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 561-576, December.
    8. Zhang, Guoqiang & Y. Hu, Michael & Eddy Patuwo, B. & C. Indro, Daniel, 1999. "Artificial neural networks in bankruptcy prediction: General framework and cross-validation analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 16-32, July.
    9. Wolfgang Karl Härdle & Dedy Dwi Prastyo, 2013. "Default Risk Calculation based on Predictor Selection for the Southeast Asian Industry," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2013-037, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    10. Catherine Refait, 2004. "La prévision de la faillite fondée sur l’analyse financière de l’entreprise : un état des lieux," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 162(1), pages 129-147.
    11. Wolfgang Härdle & Yuh-Jye Lee & Dorothea Schäfer & Yi-Ren Yeh, 2009. "Variable selection and oversampling in the use of smooth support vector machines for predicting the default risk of companies," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(6), pages 512-534.
    12. Fayçal Mraihi, 2016. "Distressed Company Prediction Using Logistic Regression: Tunisian’s Case," Quarterly Journal of Business Studies, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 2(1), pages 34-54.
    13. Hu, Yu-Chiang & Ansell, Jake, 2007. "Measuring retail company performance using credit scoring techniques," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 183(3), pages 1595-1606, December.
    14. Kolari, James & Glennon, Dennis & Shin, Hwan & Caputo, Michele, 2002. "Predicting large US commercial bank failures," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 361-387.
    15. Mramor, Dusan & Valentincic, Aljosa, 2003. "Forecasting the liquidity of very small private companies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 745-771, November.
    16. Evangelos C. Charalambakis, 2015. "On the Prediction of Corporate Financial Distress in the Light of the Financial Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greek Listed Firms," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 407-428, November.
    17. Santosh Kumar Shrivastav & P. Janaki Ramudu, 2020. "Bankruptcy Prediction and Stress Quantification Using Support Vector Machine: Evidence from Indian Banks," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(2), pages 1-22, May.
    18. Francesco Ciampi & Valentina Cillo & Fabio Fiano, 2020. "Combining Kohonen maps and prior payment behavior for small enterprise default prediction," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1007-1039, April.
    19. du Jardin, Philippe, 2012. "The influence of variable selection methods on the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction models," MPRA Paper 44383, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Stewart Jones, 2017. "Corporate bankruptcy prediction: a high dimensional analysis," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 1366-1422, September.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:jorsoc:v:60:y:2009:i:8:d:10.1057_palgrave.jors.2602641. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.