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Monetary Transmission in Low-Income Countries: Effectiveness and Policy Implications

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  • Prachi Mishra
  • Peter J Montiel
  • Antonio Spilimbergo

Abstract

This paper reviews the monetary transmission mechanism in low-income countries (LICs). We use the standard description of monetary transmission as a benchmark to identify aspects of the transmission mechanism that may operate differently in LICs. In particular, the paper focuses on the effects of financial market structure on monetary transmission. The weak institutional framework prevalent in LICs drastically reduces the role of securities markets. Consequently, traditional monetary transmission through market interest rates and market-determined asset prices are weak or nonexistent. The exchange rate channel, in turn, tends to be undermined by heavy central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market. The weak institutional framework also has the effect of increasing the cost of bank lending to private firms. Coupled with imperfect competition in the banking sector, this induces banks to maintain chronically high excess reserves and to invest in domestic public bonds or (when possible) in foreign bonds. With the financial system not intermediating funds properly, the bank lending channel also becomes impaired. These factors undermine both the strength and reliability of monetary transmission, which has important implications for the conduct of monetary policy in LICs.

Suggested Citation

  • Prachi Mishra & Peter J Montiel & Antonio Spilimbergo, 2012. "Monetary Transmission in Low-Income Countries: Effectiveness and Policy Implications," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(2), pages 270-302, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:imfecr:v:60:y:2012:i:2:p:270-302
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Reinhart, Carmen, 2002. "A Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: The Country Histories, 1946-2001," MPRA Paper 13191, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy; Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 06/115, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Ignazio Angeloni & Anil K. Kashyap & Benoit Mojon & Daniele Terlizzese, 2003. "Monetary Transmission in the Euro Area: Does the Interest Rate Channel Explain it All?," NBER Working Papers 9984, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 1999. "Legal structure, financial structure, and the monetary policy transmission mechanism," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 9-28.
    5. Mishra, Prachi & Montiel, Peter J & Spilimbergo, Antonio, 2011. "How Effective Is Monetary Transmission in Developing Countries? A Survey of the Empirical Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 8577, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jakub Mateju, 2014. "Explaining the Strength and Efficiency of Monetary Policy Transmission: A Panel of Impulse Responses from a Time-Varying Parameter Model," Working Papers 2014/04, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    2. SENBETA, Sisay Regassa, 2013. "Foreign exchange constraints and macroeconomic dynamics in a small open economy," Working Papers 2013023, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
    3. Channarith Meng & Roberto Leon Gonzalez, 2017. "Credit Booms in Developing Countries: Are They Different from Those in Advanced and Emerging Market Countries?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 547-579, July.
    4. International Monetary Fund, 2013. "Haiti; 2012 Article IV Consultation and Fifth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility," IMF Staff Country Reports 13/90, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Bhattacharya, Rudrani, 2017. "Effectiveness of monetary policy in stabilising food inflation: Evidence from advanced and emerging economies," Working Papers 17/209, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    6. Mishra, Prachi & Montiel, Peter, 2013. "How effective is monetary transmission in low-income countries? A survey of the empirical evidence," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 187-216.
    7. S. Burcu Avci & Eray Yucel, 2017. "Effectiveness of monetary policy: evidence from Turkey," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 7(2), pages 179-213, August.
    8. Catalan, Mario & Demekas, Dimitri, 2015. "Challenges for Systemic Risk Assessment in Low-Income Countries," MPRA Paper 64125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Philip R. Lane, 2015. "International Financial Flows in Low-Income Countries," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 49-72, February.
    10. Bin Grace Li & Stephen A. O'Connell & Christopher S Adam & Andrew Berg & Peter J Montiel, 2016. "VAR meets DSGE; Uncovering the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 16/90, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Charles Abuka & Ronnie K Alinda & Camelia Minoiu & José-Luis Peydró & Andrea Presbitero, 2015. "Monetary Policy in a Developing Country; Loan Applications and Real Effects," IMF Working Papers 15/270, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Nyorekwa, Enock Twinoburyo & Odhiambo, Nicholas Mbaya, 2016. "Monetary policy and economic growth in Kenya:The role of money supply and interest rates," Working Papers 20712, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
    13. repec:ilo:ilowps:488115 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. International Monetary Fund, 2015. "Republic of Madagascar; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 15/25, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Montiel, Peter J., 2015. "Monetary transmission in low-income countries : an overview," ILO Working Papers 994881153402676, International Labour Organization.
    16. Effiong, Ekpeno & Esu, Godwin & Chuku, Chuku, 2017. "Financial Development and Monetary Policy Effectiveness in Africa," MPRA Paper 79732, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Mariam El Hamiani Khatat, 2016. "Monetary Policy in the Presence of Islamic Banking," IMF Working Papers 16/72, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Adolfo Barajas & Ralph Chami & Christian H Ebeke & Anne Oeking, 2016. "What’s Different about Monetary Policy Transmission in Remittance-Dependent Countries?," IMF Working Papers 16/44, International Monetary Fund.
    19. S.M. Ali Abbas & Raphael Espinoza, 2016. "Why Do Banks in Developing Countries Hold Government Securities?," UCL SSEES Economics and Business working paper series 2016-1, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES).

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