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Fundraising, social media and tourism in American symphony orchestras and opera houses


  • Angela Besana

    () (IULM University)

  • Annamaria Esposito

    (IULM University)


The multiple segmentation of audiences and stakeholders is as essential to the survival of American symphony orchestras and opera houses as is revenue diversification. Fundraising remains the key source of revenue, but managers are now exploring new target audiences with the increased use of non-traditional social media. Marketing towards non-traditional audiences such as musical tourists is coming under increasing scrutiny. Using a normal mixture cluster analysis of revenues and expenses in 2015, and considering a cultural tourism ratio, economic performances and targets of social media, this paper will segment a sample of some of the largest symphony orchestras and opera houses in the United States.

Suggested Citation

  • Angela Besana & Annamaria Esposito, 2019. "Fundraising, social media and tourism in American symphony orchestras and opera houses," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 54(2), pages 137-144, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:buseco:v:54:y:2019:i:2:d:10.1057_s11369-019-00118-7
    DOI: 10.1057/s11369-019-00118-7

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Seongho Song & David Yi, 2011. "The fundraising efficiency in U.S. non-profit art organizations: an application of a Bayesian estimation approach using the stochastic frontier production model," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 171-180, April.
    2. Thomas More Smith, 2007. "The Impact Of Government Funding On Private Contributions To Nonprofit Performing Arts Organizations," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 78(1), pages 137-160, March.
    3. David T. Yi, 2010. "Determinants of fundraising efficiency of nonprofit organizations: evidence from US public charitable organizations," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(7), pages 465-475.
    4. Kaplan, Andreas M. & Haenlein, Michael, 2010. "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 59-68, January.
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    6. Yi-De Liu, 2014. "Cultural Events and Cultural Tourism Development: Lessons from the European Capitals of Culture," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 498-514, March.
    7. Lawrence Tamburri & Johnathan Munn & Jeffrey Pompe, 2015. "Repertoire Conventionality in Major US Symphony Orchestras: Factors Influencing Management's Programming Choices," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(2), pages 97-108, March.
    8. Kietzmann, Jan H. & Hermkens, Kristopher & McCarthy, Ian P. & Silvestre, Bruno S., 2011. "Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 241-251, May.
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