Competitive Balance in Team Sports: The Scoring Context, Referees, and Overtime
This paper focuses on a qualitative comparison between European football and U.S. team sports with respect to the effects of the number of goals per match, impartial errors of the referee, and overtime versus ties on the natural level of competitive balance. The more goals and the more perfect the referee, the more drastic are the measures needed to maintain competitive balance. Taking into account that the optimal level of competitive balance is lower in open leagues than in closed leagues, the combined effect of these factors may explain why in U.S. team sports special measures are in force to maintain competitive balance, which are absent in Europe.
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Volume (Year): 165 (2009)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
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- Greenhough, J & Birch, P.C & Chapman, S.C & Rowlands, G, 2002. "Football goal distributions and extremal statistics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 316(1), pages 615-624.
- Thomas Hoehn & Stefan Szymanski, 1999. "The Americanization of European football," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 14(28), pages 203-240, 04.
- Szymanski, Stefan, 2001. "Income Inequality, Competitive Balance and the Attractiveness of Team Sports: Some Evidence and a Natural Experiment from English Soccer," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(469), pages 69-84, February.
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