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The Impacts of Ict on leisure Activities and Travel: A Conceptual Exploration


  • Patricia Mokhtarian


  • Ilan Salomon
  • Susan Handy


This paper offers a conceptual exploration of the potential impacts of ICTs on leisure activities and the associated travel. We start by discussing what leisure is and is not. We point out that the boundaries between leisure, mandatory, and maintenance activities are permeable, for three reasons: the multi-attribute nature of a single activity, the sequential interleaving of activity fragments, and the simultaneous conduct of multiple activities (multitasking). We then discuss four kinds of ways by which ICT can affect leisure activities and travel: the replacement of a traditional activity with an ICT counterpart, the generation of new ICT activities (that may displace other activities), the ICT-enabled reallocation of time to other activities, and ICT as a facilitator of leisure activities. We suggest 13 dimensions of leisure activities that are especially relevant to the issue of ICT impacts: location (in)dependence, mobility-based versus stationary, time (in)dependence, planning horizon, temporal structure and fragmentation, possible multitasking, solitary versus social activity, active versus passive participation, physical versus mental, equipment/media (in)dependence, informal versus formal arrangements required, motivation, and cost. The primary impact of ICT on leisure is to expand an individual’s choice set; however whether or not the new options will be chosen depends on the attributes of the activity (such as the 13 identified dimensions), as well as those of the individual. The potential transportation impacts when the new options are chosen are ambiguous. Copyright Springer 2006

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia Mokhtarian & Ilan Salomon & Susan Handy, 2006. "The Impacts of Ict on leisure Activities and Travel: A Conceptual Exploration," Transportation, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 263-289, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:transp:v:33:y:2006:i:3:p:263-289 DOI: 10.1007/s11116-005-2305-6

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David T. Ory & Patricia L. Mokhtarian & Lothlorien S. Redmond & Ilan Salomon & Gustavo O. Collantes & Sangho Choo, 2004. "When is Commuting Desirable to the Individual?," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 334-359.
    2. Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Salomon, Ilan & Handy, Susan L, 2004. "A Taxonomy of Leisure Activities: The Role of ICT," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt7d26j7wt, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    3. Erik Brynjolfsson & Michael D. Smith, 2000. "Frictionless Commerce? A Comparison of Internet and Conventional Retailers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(4), pages 563-585, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Caroline Bayart & Patrick Bonnel, 2010. "L'impact du mode d'enquête sur la mesure des comportements de mobilité," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 437(1), pages 47-70.
    2. repec:eee:transa:v:99:y:2017:i:c:p:147-162 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Banister, David, 2008. "The sustainable mobility paradigm," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 73-80, March.
    4. Pawlak, Jacek & Polak, John W. & Sivakumar, Aruna, 2015. "Towards a microeconomic framework for modelling the joint choice of activity–travel behaviour and ICT use," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 92-112.
    5. Nursitihazlin Ahmad Termida & Yusak O. Susilo & Joel P. Franklin, 2016. "Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(6), pages 997-1021, November.
    6. Pauline Berg & Theo Arentze & Harry Timmermans, 2015. "A multilevel analysis of factors influencing local social interaction," Transportation, Springer, vol. 42(5), pages 807-826, September.
    7. Ronald, Nicole & Arentze, Theo & Timmermans, Harry, 2012. "Modeling social interactions between individuals for joint activity scheduling," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 276-290.
    8. Aguiléra, Anne & Guillot, Caroline & Rallet, Alain, 2012. "Mobile ICTs and physical mobility: Review and research agenda," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 664-672.
    9. Akar, Gulsah & Clifton, Kelly J. & Doherty, Sean T., 2012. "Redefining activity types: Who participates in which leisure activity?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1194-1204.
    10. Bert van Wee & Caspar Chorus & Karst T. Geurs, 2012. "ICT and accessibility: research synthesis and future perspectives," Chapters,in: Accessibility Analysis and Transport Planning, chapter 3, pages 37-53 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Farag, Sendy & Lyons, Glenn, 2012. "To use or not to use? An empirical study of pre-trip public transport information for business and leisure trips and comparison with car travel," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 82-92.
    12. Ben-Elia, Eran & Alexander, Bayarma & Hubers, Christa & Ettema, Dick, 2014. "Activity fragmentation, ICT and travel: An exploratory Path Analysis of spatiotemporal interrelationships," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 56-74.
    13. Oliver, Atara Stephanie, 2013. "Information Technology and Transportation: Substitutes or Complements?," MPRA Paper 46548, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Gulsah Akar & Kelly Clifton & Sean Doherty, 2011. "Discretionary activity location choice: in-home or out-of-home?," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 101-122, January.
    15. Bastian , Anne & Börjesson, Maria, 2017. "The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985-2015," Working papers in Transport Economics 2017:9, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
    16. Konstadinos G. Goulias & Ram M. Pendyala, 2014. "Choice context," Chapters,in: Handbook of Choice Modelling, chapter 5, pages 101-130 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    17. Páez, Antonio & Moniruzzaman, Md. & Bourbonnais, Pierre-Leo & Morency, Catherine, 2013. "Developing a web-based accessibility calculator prototype for the Greater Montreal Area," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 103-115.


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