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Informal Investment in Transition Economies: Individual Characteristics and Clusters

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  • László Szerb

    ()

  • Gábor Rappai
  • Zsolt Makra
  • Siri Terjesen

    ()

Abstract

This paper investigates the factors driving informal investment in Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data, we find that the low rates of informal investment activity and the small amounts of investments in these countries are driven by entrepreneurial behaviors consistent with limited market economy experience. We extend prior studies by investigating the role of business ownership, and identify significant differences between individuals with and without business ownership experience in terms of having start-up skills, knowing an entrepreneur and fearing failure. Cluster analysis identifies seven distinct groups of informal investors, and reveals the heterogeneity in terms of investors’ age, gender, level of education, amount of investment, start-up skills, ownership status, income, opportunity perception and country of residence. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • László Szerb & Gábor Rappai & Zsolt Makra & Siri Terjesen, 2007. "Informal Investment in Transition Economies: Individual Characteristics and Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 257-271, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:28:y:2007:i:2:p:257-271
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-006-9019-9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Klapper, Leora & Sarria-Allende, Virginia & Sulla, Victor, 2002. "Small and medium size enterprise financing in Eastern Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2933, The World Bank.
    2. Mike Wright & Judit Karsai & Zbigniew Dudzinski & Jan Morovic, 1999. "Transition and Active Investors: Venture Capital in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 27-46.
    3. Zoltán J. Ács & Colm O'Gorman & László Szerb & Siri Terjesen, 2015. "Could the Irish Miracle be Repeated in Hungary?," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 30, pages 584-603 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Mike Wright, 1998. "Venture Capital and Private Equity: A Review and Synthesis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 521-570.
    5. Valentijn Bilsen & Elena Mitina, 1999. "Financing Firm Start-up and Restructuring in Transition Countries: Evidence from Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia," Working Papers wp150, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    6. Kornai, Janos, 1990. "The Affinity between Ownership Forms and Coordination Mechanisms: The Common Experience of Reform in Socialist Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 131-147, Summer.
    7. Tyson, Laura d'Andrea & Petrin, Tea & Rogers, F Halsey, 1994. "Promoting Entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 165-184, June.
    8. Hector Rocha, 2004. "Entrepreneurship and Development: The Role of Clusters," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 363-400, October.
    9. Markku Maula & Erkko Autio & Pia Arenius, 2005. "What Drives Micro-Angel Investments?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 459-475, December.
    10. Tomi Ovaska & Russell S. Sobel, 2005. "Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Economies," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 21(Fall 2005), pages 8-28.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:agr:journl:v:xxiv:y:2017:i:2(611):p:131-146 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Judit Karsai, 2012. "Development of the Hungarian Venture Capital and Private Equity Industry over the Past Two Decades," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1201, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    3. Dirk Clercq & Dominic Lim & Chang Oh, 2014. "Hierarchy and conservatism in the contributions of resources to entrepreneurial activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 507-522, March.
    4. repec:gem:wpaper:1201 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Karsai, Judit, 2015. "Állami szerepvállalás a kelet-közép-európai kockázatitőke-piacon
      [The role of government in the Central and East European venture-capital market]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 1172-1195.
    6. Karsai, Judit, 2007. "Kifelé a zsákutcából. Állami kockázati tőke és innováció
      [Out of the blind alley. State venture capital and innovation]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(12), pages 1085-1102.
    7. Claudia Alvarez & David Urbano, 2008. "Entorno e Iniciativa Emprendedora: una Perspectiva Institucional," Working Papers 0807, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Dec 2008.
    8. Karsai, Judit, 2011. "A kockázati tőke két évtizedes fejlődése Magyarországon
      [Development of the venture capital and private equity industry in Hungary over the past two decades]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(10), pages 832-857.
    9. Maria Figueroa-Armijos & Thomas G. Johnson, 2016. "Entrepreneurship policy and economic growth: Solution or delusion? Evidence from a state initiative," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1033-1047, December.
    10. Zhujun Ding & Sunny Sun & Kevin Au, 2014. "Angel investors’ selection criteria: A comparative institutional perspective," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 705-731, September.
    11. repec:rss:jnljms:v1i9p3 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. De Clercq, Dirk & Meuleman, Miguel & Wright, Mike, 2012. "A cross-country investigation of micro-angel investment activity: The roles of new business opportunities and institutions," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 117-129.
    13. Kim Klyver & Noel J. Lindsay & Suleiman K. “Sul” Kassicieh & Gary Hancock, 2017. "Altruistic investment decision behavior in early-stage ventures," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 135-152, January.
    14. Richard L. Constand & Arthur H. Gilbert, Jr., 2011. "E-readiness and Entrepreneurship: A Cross Country Study of the Link between Technological Infrastructure and Entrepreneurial Activity," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 15(2), pages 107-129, Winter.
    15. Kiss, Andreea N. & Danis, Wade M. & Cavusgil, S. Tamer, 2012. "International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 266-290.
    16. Ding, Zhujun & Au, Kevin & Chiang, Flora, 2015. "Social trust and angel investors' decisions: A multilevel analysis across nations," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 307-321.
    17. Claudia Álvarez & David Urbano & José Amorós, 2014. "GEM research: achievements and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 445-465, March.
    18. José Ernesto Amorós & Miguel Atienza & Gianni Romaní, 2008. "Formal and Informal Equity Funding in Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(2 Year 20), pages 179-194, December.
    19. Ramani, Shyama V. & Thutupalli, Ajay & Medovarski, Tamas & Chattopadhyay, Sutapa & Ravichandran, Veena, 2013. "Women entrepreneurs in the informal economy: Is formalization the only solution for business sustainability?," MERIT Working Papers 018, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    20. Judit Karsai, 2015. "Are CEE states successful as venture capitalists?," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1539, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    informal investment; entrepreneurship; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; CEE; transition economies; G24; G28; L26; M13; P20;

    JEL classification:

    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • P20 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - General

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