IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/rqfnac/v50y2018i4d10.1007_s11156-017-0659-4.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Real activities manipulation and firm valuation

Author

Listed:
  • Cristhian Mellado-Cid

    (Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción)

  • Surendranath R. Jory

    (University of Southampton)

  • Thanh N. Ngo

    (East Carolina University)

Abstract

In this paper, we study the link between real earnings management and firm value. Consistent with prior studies, we expect the ability of a firm to generate future cash flows to be significantly impaired by its use of real activities manipulations. Using a cross-section of companies from the Standard & Poor’s Compustat database from 1990 to 2013, we find that firms with higher real earnings management are associated with lower industry-adjusted Tobin’s Q and firm-specific misvaluation measure. Our results are consistent under several regression techniques addressing potential endogeneity issues and alternative proxies for real earnings management after controlling for known factors to affect firm market values.

Suggested Citation

  • Cristhian Mellado-Cid & Surendranath R. Jory & Thanh N. Ngo, 2018. "Real activities manipulation and firm valuation," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1201-1226, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:50:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s11156-017-0659-4
    DOI: 10.1007/s11156-017-0659-4
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11156-017-0659-4
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11156-017-0659-4?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. SANJEEV BHOJRAJ & PAUL HRIBAR & MARC PICCONI & JOHN McINNIS, 2009. "Making Sense of Cents: An Examination of Firms That Marginally Miss or Beat Analyst Forecasts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(5), pages 2361-2388, October.
    2. Martin, Kenneth J, 1996. "The Method of Payment in Corporate Acquisitions, Investment Opportunities, and Management Ownership," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1227-1246, September.
    3. Hertzel, Michael G. & Li, Zhi, 2010. "Behavioral and Rational Explanations of Stock Price Performance around SEOs: Evidence from a Decomposition of Market-to-Book Ratios," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(4), pages 935-958, August.
    4. Bergstresser, Daniel & Philippon, Thomas, 2006. "CEO incentives and earnings management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 511-529, June.
    5. Louis, Henock, 2004. "Earnings management and the market performance of acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 121-148, October.
    6. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    7. Jonathan A. Milian, 2016. "Insider sales based on short-term earnings information," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 109-128, July.
    8. Ling Lin & Pavinee Manowan, 2012. "Institutional Ownership Composition and Earnings Management," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 15(04), pages 1-22.
    9. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R. & Rajgopal, Shiva, 2005. "The economic implications of corporate financial reporting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-3), pages 3-73, December.
    10. Harris, MS, 1998. "The association between competition and managers' business segment reporting decisions," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(1), pages 111-128.
    11. Roychowdhury, Sugata, 2006. "Earnings management through real activities manipulation," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 335-370, December.
    12. John R. Graham, 2000. "How Big Are the Tax Benefits of Debt?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1901-1941, October.
    13. Bill Francis & Iftekhar Hasan & Lingxiang Li, 2016. "Abnormal real operations, real earnings management, and subsequent crashes in stock prices," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 217-260, February.
    14. Tsai-Ling Liao & Chih-Jen Huang & Hsiao-Chi Liu, 2015. "Earnings Management During Lockup in Explaining IPO Operating Underperformance," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 18(01), pages 1-21.
    15. Chi, Jianxin (Daniel) & Gupta, Manu, 2009. "Overvaluation and earnings management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1652-1663, September.
    16. Robert E. Houmes & Terrance R. Skantz, 2010. "Highly Valued Equity and Discretionary Accruals," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(1-2), pages 60-92.
    17. Teoh, Siew Hong & Welch, Ivo & Wong, T. J., 1998. "Earnings management and the underperformance of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 63-99, October.
    18. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    19. Subramanyam, K. R., 1996. "The pricing of discretionary accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 249-281, October.
    20. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Lee, D. Scott & Martin, Gerald S., 2008. "The Cost to Firms of Cooking the Books," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(3), pages 581-611, September.
    21. Hamid Sakaki & Dave Jackson & Surendranath Jory, 2017. "Institutional ownership stability and real earnings management," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 227-244, July.
    22. Bhattacharya, Utpal & Daouk, Hazem & Welker, Michael, 2003. "The World Price of Earnings Opacity," Working Papers 127185, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    23. Rhodes-Kropf, Matthew & Robinson, David T. & Viswanathan, S., 2005. "Valuation waves and merger activity: The empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 561-603, September.
    24. Roll, Richard & Schwartz, Eduardo & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2009. "Options trading activity and firm valuation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 345-360, December.
    25. Kyoko Nagata & Toyohiko Hachiya, 2007. "Earnings Management and the Pricing of Initial Public Offerings," Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies (RPBFMP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 10(04), pages 541-559.
    26. Ben‐Hsien Bao & Da‐Hsien Bao, 2004. "Income Smoothing, Earnings Quality and Firm Valuation," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(9‐10), pages 1525-1557, November.
    27. Katherine A. Gunny, 2010. "The Relation Between Earnings Management Using Real Activities Manipulation and Future Performance: Evidence from Meeting Earnings Benchmarks," Contemporary Accounting Research, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(3), pages 855-888, September.
    28. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, September.
    29. Marciukaityte, Dalia & Varma, Raj, 2008. "Consequences of overvalued equity: Evidence from earnings manipulation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 418-430, September.
    30. Patricia M. Dechow & Richard G. Sloan & Amy P. Sweeney, 1996. "Causes and Consequences of Earnings Manipulation: An Analysis of Firms Subject to Enforcement Actions by the SEC," Contemporary Accounting Research, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 13(1), pages 1-36, March.
    31. M. Alhadab & I. Clacher & K. Keasey, 2016. "A Comparative Analysis of Real and Accrual Earnings Management around Initial Public Offerings under Different Regulatory Environments," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(7-8), pages 849-871, July.
    32. Bill Francis & Iftekhar Hasan & Lingxiang Li, 2016. "Abnormal real operations, real earnings management, and subsequent crashes in stock prices," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 217-260, February.
    33. Javeria Farooqi & Thanh Ngo & Surendranath Jory, 2017. "Real activities manipulation by bidders prior to mergers and acquisitions," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 16(3), pages 322-347, August.
    34. Rountree, Brian & Weston, James P. & Allayannis, George, 2008. "Do investors value smooth performance?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(3), pages 237-251, December.
    35. Feroz, Eh & Park, K & Pastena, Vs, 1991. "The Financial And Market Effects Of The Secs Accounting And Auditing Enforcement Releases," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29, pages 107-142.
    36. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy: A Discriminant Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(1), pages 193-194, March.
    37. Ben-Hsien Bao & Da-Hsien Bao, 2004. "Income Smoothing, Earnings Quality and Firm Valuation," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(9-10), pages 1525-1557.
    38. Joel S. Demski, 1998. "Performance Measure Manipulation," Contemporary Accounting Research, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 15(3), pages 261-285, September.
    39. Chaney, Paul K. & Lewis, Craig M., 1995. "Earnings management and firm valuation under asymmetric information," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 319-345, April.
    40. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    41. Louis, Henock & Robinson, Dahlia, 2005. "Do managers credibly use accruals to signal private information? Evidence from the pricing of discretionary accruals around stock splits," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 361-380, June.
    42. Robert E. Houmes & Terrance R. Skantz, 2010. "Highly Valued Equity and Discretionary Accruals," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(1‐2), pages 60-92, January.
    43. Koh, Ping-Sheng, 2003. "On the association between institutional ownership and aggressive corporate earnings management in Australia," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 105-128.
    44. Michael C. Jensen, 2005. "Agency Costs of Overvalued Equity," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 34(1), Spring.
    45. Cohen, Daniel A. & Zarowin, Paul, 2010. "Accrual-based and real earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 2-19, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Syed Farhan Shah & Abdul Rashid & Wasim Shahid Malik, 2024. "Potential Substitution Between Accrual Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management Among Pakistani Listed Firms," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 25(1), pages 180-197, February.
    2. Mary S. Hill & Gary K. Taylor, 2023. "Default risk and earnings expectations: The role of contract maturity in the credit default swap market," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 63(4), pages 4275-4298, December.
    3. Chen, Haiwei & Jory, Surendranath & Ngo, Thanh, 2020. "Earnings management under different ownership and corporate governance structure: A natural experiment with master limited partnerships," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 139-156.
    4. Chih-Yang Tseng, 2020. "Family firms and long-term orientation of SG&A expenditures," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 1181-1206, November.
    5. Beckmann, Klaus S. & Escobari, Diego A. & Ngo, Thanh, 2019. "The real earnings management of cross-listing firms," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 128-145.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Habib, Ahsan & Hasan, Mostafa Monzur, 2017. "Business strategy, overvalued equities, and stock price crash risk," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 389-405.
    2. Nguyet T. M. Nguyen & Abdullah Iqbal & Radha K. Shiwakoti, 2022. "The context of earnings management and its ability to predict future stock returns," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 59(1), pages 123-169, July.
    3. Mughal, Azhar & Tao, Qizhi & Sun, Yicheng & Xiang, Xueman, 2021. "Earnings management at target firms and the acquirers’ performance," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 384-404.
    4. Al-Shattarat, Basiem & Hussainey, Khaled & Al-Shattarat, Wasim, 2022. "The impact of abnormal real earnings management to meet earnings benchmarks on future operating performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
    5. Dechow, Patricia & Ge, Weili & Schrand, Catherine, 2010. "Understanding earnings quality: A review of the proxies, their determinants and their consequences," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 344-401, December.
    6. Chen, Yangyang & Rhee, S. Ghon & Veeraraghavan, Madhu & Zolotoy, Leon, 2015. "Stock liquidity and managerial short-termism," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 44-59.
    7. Chang, Che-Chia & Pan, Hunghua, 2020. "How do stock-for-stock acquirers manage earnings? The accruals feature of real earnings management," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2).
    8. Griffin, Paul A. & Hong, Hyun A. & Liu, Yun & Ryou, Ji Woo, 2021. "The dark side of CEO social capital: Evidence from real earnings management and future operating performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    9. Julia Sawicki & Keshab Shrestha, 2014. "Misvaluation and Insider Trading Incentives for Accrual-based and Real Earnings Management," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(7-8), pages 926-949, September.
    10. Lauren A. Cooper & Jimmy F. Downes & Ramesh P. Rao, 2018. "Short term real earnings management prior to stock repurchases," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 95-128, January.
    11. Manish Kumar & Madhu Vij & Rishabh Goswami, 2021. "Effect of Real Earnings Management on Firm Performance: Evidence from India," Vision, , vol. 27(3), pages 386-396, June.
    12. Ahsan Habib & Dinithi Ranasinghe & Julia Yonghua Wu & Pallab Kumar Biswas & Fawad Ahmad, 2022. "Real earnings management: A review of the international literature," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 62(4), pages 4279-4344, December.
    13. Chowdhury, Hasibul & Hodgson, Allan & Pathan, Shams, 2020. "Do external labour market incentives constrain bad news hoarding? The CEO's industry tournament and crash risk reduction," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    14. Yang, Yiru & Abeysekera, Indra, 2019. "Duration of equity overvaluation and managers’ choice to use aggressive underlying earnings disclosure and accrual-based earnings management: Australian evidence," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 167-185.
    15. Campa, Domenico & Camacho-Miñano, María-del-Mar, 2015. "The impact of SME’s pre-bankruptcy financial distress on earnings management tools," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 222-234.
    16. Hao, (Grace) Qing & Li, Keming, 2022. "Options trading and earnings management: Evidence from the penny pilot program," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    17. Chi, Jianxin (Daniel) & Gupta, Manu, 2009. "Overvaluation and earnings management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1652-1663, September.
    18. Frerich Buchholz & Kerstin Lopatta & Karen Maas, 2020. "The Deliberate Engagement of Narcissistic CEOs in Earnings Management," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 167(4), pages 663-686, December.
    19. Qin, Yiyi & Cai, Jun & Rhee, S. Ghon, 2021. "Do Japanese firms systematically inflate expected rate of returns from defined benefit pension plans?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    20. Eiler, Lisa A. & Filzen, Joshua J. & Jackson, Mark & Tama-Sweet, Isho, 2021. "Real earnings management and the properties of analysts' forecasts," Advances in accounting, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Earnings management; Real activities manipulation; Real earnings management; Mispricing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:50:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s11156-017-0659-4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.