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What drives patenting and commerzialisation activity at East German universities? The role of new public policy, institutional environment and individual prior knowledge

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  • Heike Grimm

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  • Johannes Jaenicke

Abstract

New public policy enacted in Germany in 2002, intends to increase the number of patent registrations of academic entrepreneurs, and facilitate the commercialization and spillover of innovation generated at public universities. Results from a survey amongst university patentees in two new German Laender, Thuringia and Saxony, accomplished in 2009, are reported focusing on government policy, university support, and the role of technology transfer in an organizational and cultural context. Using a two-step cluster analysis, the survey data are used to profile the patentees and to investigate whether personal attributes and institutional environment contribute to academic entrepreneurship. Empirical findings show that advanced age and non-university working experience contribute significantly to entrepreneurial behavior. New public policy contributes to facilitate patent registrations, but professional expertise for the commercialization of knowledge as well as financial and organizational support schemes needs further improvement. This explains why patent registrations have slightly increased but also why universities report very low levels of commercialization through entrepreneurship. We offer policy recommendations to overcome the existent barriers, among them, the professionalization of technology transfer or targeted marketing for registered patents. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Heike Grimm & Johannes Jaenicke, 2012. "What drives patenting and commerzialisation activity at East German universities? The role of new public policy, institutional environment and individual prior knowledge," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 454-477, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jtecht:v:37:y:2012:i:4:p:454-477 DOI: 10.1007/s10961-010-9195-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2013. "Governments as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects," Chapters,in: Public Support of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms, chapter 2, pages 25-38 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. David B. Audretsch & Heike M. Grimm & Stephan Schuetze, 2009. "Local Strategies within a European Policy Framework," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 463-486, March.
    3. Sean M. Hackett & David M. Dilts, 2004. "A Systematic Review of Business Incubation Research," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 55-82, January.
    4. Lee Cronbach, 1951. "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 16(3), pages 297-334, September.
    5. Mowery, David C. & Ziedonis, Arvids A., 2002. "Academic patent quality and quantity before and after the Bayh-Dole act in the United States," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 399-418, March.
    6. Shane, Scott, 2004. "Encouraging university entrepreneurship? The effect of the Bayh-Dole Act on university patenting in the United States," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 127-151, January.
    7. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
    8. Edith de Leeuw, 2001. "Reducing Missing Data in Surveys: An Overview of Methods," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 147-160, May.
    9. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike & Franklin, Stephen, 2003. "Technology Transfer and Universities' Spin-Out Strategies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 185-200, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rosa Caiazza & Aileen Richardson & David Audretsch, 2015. "Knowledge effects on competitiveness: from firms to regional advantage," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(6), pages 899-909, December.
    2. Heike Grimm & Johannes Jaenicke, 2015. "Testing the causal relationship between academic patenting and scientific publishing in Germany: Crowding-out or reinforcement?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 512-535, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Patents; Academic entrepreneurship; University technology transfer; Commercialization of university research; Entrepreneurship policy; Government instruments; Cluster analysis; O31; O32; O38; C83;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • C83 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods

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