Does CSR Reduce Firm Risk? Evidence from Controversial Industry Sectors
In this paper, we examine the relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm risk in controversial industry sectors. We develop and test two competing hypotheses of risk reduction and window dressing. Employing an extensive U.S. sample during the 1991–2010 period from controversial industry firms, such as alcohol, tobacco, gambling, and others, we find that CSR engagement inversely affects firm risk after controlling for various firm characteristics. To deal with endogeneity issue, we adopt a system equation approach and difference regressions and continue to find that CSR engagement of firms in controversial industry sectors negatively affects firm risk. To examine the premise that firm risk is more of an issue for controversial firms, we further examine the difference between non-controversial and controversial firm samples, and find that the effect of risk reduction through CSR engagement is more economically and statistically significant in controversial industry firms than in non-controversial industry firms. These findings support the risk-reduction hypothesis, but not the window-dressing hypothesis, and the notion that the top management of U.S. firms in controversial industries is, in general, risk averse and that their CSR engagement helps their risk management efforts. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, 09.
- Ioannis Oikonomou & Stephen Pavelin, 2010.
"The Impact of Corporate Social Performance on Financial Risk and Utility: A Longitudinal Analysis,"
ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance
icma-dp2010-12, Henley Business School, Reading University.
- Ioannis Oikonomou & Chris Brooks & Stephen Pavelin, 2012. "The Impact of Corporate Social Performance on Financial Risk and Utility: A Longitudinal Analysis," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 41(2), pages 483-515, 06.
- Ye Cai & Hoje Jo & Carrie Pan, 2012. "Doing Well While Doing Bad? CSR in Controversial Industry Sectors," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 108(4), pages 467-480, July.
- Donald S. Siegel & Donald F. Vitaliano, 2007.
"An Empirical Analysis of the Strategic Use of Corporate Social Responsibility,"
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 773-792, 09.
- Donald S. Siegel & Donald F. Vitaliano, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of the Strategic Use of Corporate Social Responsibility," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0602, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Duan, Ying & Hu, Gang & McLean, R. David, 2010. "Costly arbitrage and idiosyncratic risk: Evidence from short sellers," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 564-579, October.
- Thomas Donaldson, 2012. "Three Ethical Roots of the Economic Crisis," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 106(1), pages 5-8, March.
- Hoje Jo & Maretno Harjoto, 2012. "The Causal Effect of Corporate Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 106(1), pages 53-72, March.
- Pontiff, Jeffrey, 2006. "Costly arbitrage and the myth of idiosyncratic risk," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 35-52, October.
- Barbara Lougee & James Wallace, 2008. "The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Trend," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 20(1), pages 96-108.
- Hoje Jo & Maretno Harjoto, 2011. "Corporate Governance and Firm Value: The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 103(3), pages 351-383, October.
- Aaron K. Chatterji & David I. Levine & Michael W. Toffel, 2009. "How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 125-169, 03.
- Andrei Shleifer ad Robert W. Vishny, 1995.
"The Limits of Arbitrage,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1725, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Hong, Harrison & Kacperczyk, Marcin, 2009. "The price of sin: The effects of social norms on markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 15-36, July.
- Baron David P & Agus Harjoto Maretno & Jo Hoje, 2011. "The Economics and Politics of Corporate Social Performance," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 13(2), pages 1-48, August.
- El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Kwok, Chuck C.Y. & Mishra, Dev R., 2011. "Does corporate social responsibility affect the cost of capital?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2388-2406, September.
- Goss, Allen & Roberts, Gordon S., 2011. "The impact of corporate social responsibility on the cost of bank loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1794-1810, July.
- Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1997. "Industry costs of equity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 153-193, February.
- Darren D. Lee & Robert W. Faff, 2009. "Corporate Sustainability Performance and Idiosyncratic Risk: A Global Perspective," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 213-237, 05.
- Toms, Steven & Anderson, Keith & Salama, Aly, 2009. "Does Community and Environmental Responsibility Affect Firm Risk? Evidence from UK Panel Data 1994-2006," The York Management School Working Papers 49, The York Management School, University of York.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:110:y:2012:i:4:p:441-456. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.