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From substitution to complementarity: some econometric evidence on the evolving NGO-State relationship in Pakistan

Author

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  • Campos, Nauro F
  • Khan, Feisal U
  • Tessendorf, Jennifer E

    (University of Newcastle and Centre for Economic Policy Research, U.K.)

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between government policies and quasi-public institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). In particular, it attempts to identify under which conditions they can act as complements or substitutes. The case of Pakistan is used to motivate three sets of research questions: (a) Is there credible evidence of government policy failure in Pakistan? (b) If so, have any NGOs emerged in response to this, to act as either complements to or substitutes for policies? (c) What are the key characteristics of any such NGOs and how might they contribute to overall NGO success? Drawing upon the experience of the Aga Khan Rural Support Program in northern Pakistan, the paper uses both qualitative and econometric techniques to help answer these questions.

Suggested Citation

  • Campos, Nauro F & Khan, Feisal U & Tessendorf, Jennifer E, 2004. "From substitution to complementarity: some econometric evidence on the evolving NGO-State relationship in Pakistan," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 37(2), pages 49-72, January-M.
  • Handle: RePEc:jda:journl:vol.37:year:2004:issue2:pp:49-72
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stephen Knack & Philip Keefer, 1997. "Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1251-1288.
    2. Haque, Nadeem U. & Husain, Aasim M. & Montiel, Peter J., 1994. "An empirical "dependent economy" model for Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(10), pages 1585-1597, October.
    3. Looney, Robert E., 1997. "Excessive defense expenditures and economic stabilization: The case of Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 381-406, August.
    4. Amjad, Rashid, 1984. "The management of Pakistan's economy 1947-82," MPRA Paper 35850, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Chishti, Salim U. & Hasan, M. Aynul & Mahmud, Syed F., 1992. "Macroeconometric modelling and Pakistan's economy : A vector autoregression approach," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 353-370, April.
    6. Buchinsky, Moshe, 1995. "Quantile regression, Box-Cox transformation model, and the U.S. wage structure, 1963-1987," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 109-154, January.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asia; Pakistan; Institutions; NGOs; Rural Development; Policy Failure.;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • D70 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - General
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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