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# A Mathematical Model and Descent Algorithm for Bilevel Traffic Management

## Author

Listed:
• Michael Patriksson

(Department of Mathematics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden)

• R. Tyrrell Rockafellar

(Department of Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-4350)

## Abstract

We provide a new mathematical model for strategic traffic management, formulated and analyzed as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). The model includes two types of control (upper-level) variables, which may be used to describe such traffic management actions as traffic signal setting, network design, and congestion pricing. The lower-level problem of the MPEC describes a traffic equilibrium model in the sense of Wardrop, in which the control variables enter as parameters in the travel costs. We consider a (small) variety of model settings, including fixed or elastic demands, the possible presence of side constraints in the traffic equilibrium system, and representations of traffic flows and management actions in both link-route and link-node space.For this model, we also propose and analyze a descent algorithm. The algorithm utilizes a new reformulation of the MPEC into a constrained, locally Lipschitz minimization problem in the product space of controls and traffic flows. The reformulation is based on the Minty (1967) parameterization of the graph of the normal cone operator for the traffic flow polyhedron. Two immediate advantages of making use of this reformulation are that the resulting descent algorithm can be operated and established to be convergent without requiring that the travel cost mapping is monotone, and without having to ever solve the lower-level equilibrium problem. We provide example realizations of the algorithm, establish their convergence, and interpret their workings in terms of the traffic network.

## Suggested Citation

• Michael Patriksson & R. Tyrrell Rockafellar, 2002. "A Mathematical Model and Descent Algorithm for Bilevel Traffic Management," Transportation Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(3), pages 271-291, August.
• Handle: RePEc:inm:ortrsc:v:36:y:2002:i:3:p:271-291
DOI: 10.1287/trsc.36.3.271.7826
as

File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/trsc.36.3.271.7826

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## Citations

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Cited by:

1. Patriksson, Michael, 2008. "On the applicability and solution of bilevel optimization models in transportation science: A study on the existence, stability and computation of optimal solutions to stochastic mathematical programs," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(10), pages 843-860, December.
2. Josefsson, Magnus & Patriksson, Michael, 2007. "Sensitivity analysis of separable traffic equilibrium equilibria with application to bilevel optimization in network design," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 4-31, January.
3. Eikenbroek, Oskar A.L. & Still, Georg J. & van Berkum, Eric C., 2022. "Improving the performance of a traffic system by fair rerouting of travelers," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 195-207.
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5. Chinmay Maheshwari & Kshitij Kulkarni & Druv Pai & Jiarui Yang & Manxi Wu & Shankar Sastry, 2024. "Congestion Pricing for Efficiency and Equity: Theory and Applications to the San Francisco Bay Area," Papers 2401.16844, arXiv.org.
6. Yueyue Fan & Changzheng Liu, 2010. "Solving Stochastic Transportation Network Protection Problems Using the Progressive Hedging-based Method," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 193-208, June.
7. Jose Moura & Angel Ibeas & Luigi dell’Olio, 2010. "Optimization–Simulation Model for Planning Supply Transport to Large Infrastructure Public Works Located in Congested Urban Areas," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 487-507, December.
8. Dung-Ying Lin & Avinash Unnikrishnan & S. Waller, 2011. "A Dual Variable Approximation Based Heuristic for Dynamic Congestion Pricing," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 271-293, June.
9. M. Hosein Zare & Osman Y. Özaltın & Oleg A. Prokopyev, 2018. "On a class of bilevel linear mixed-integer programs in adversarial settings," Journal of Global Optimization, Springer, vol. 71(1), pages 91-113, May.
10. Takebayashi, Mikio & Kanafani, Adib, 2005. "Network Competition in Air Transportation Markets: Bi-Level Approach," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 101-119, January.
11. Dung-Ying Lin & Ampol Karoonsoontawong & S. Waller, 2011. "A Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Based Heuristic Scheme for Bi-level Dynamic Network Design Problem," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 101-126, March.
12. Ukkusuri, Satish V. & Patil, Gopal, 2009. "Multi-period transportation network design under demand uncertainty," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 625-642, July.
13. So Yeon Chun & Anton J. Kleywegt & Alexander Shapiro, 2017. "When Friends Become Competitors: The Design of Resource Exchange Alliances," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(7), pages 2127-2145, July.
14. S. Dempe & A. Zemkoho, 2012. "Bilevel road pricing: theoretical analysis and optimality conditions," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 196(1), pages 223-240, July.
15. Sun, Lian-Ju & Gao, Zi-You, 2007. "An equilibrium model for urban transit assignment based on game theory," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 181(1), pages 305-314, August.
16. Connors, Richard D. & Sumalee, Agachai & Watling, David P., 2007. "Sensitivity analysis of the variable demand probit stochastic user equilibrium with multiple user-classes," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 593-615, July.
17. Michael Patriksson, 2004. "Sensitivity Analysis of Traffic Equilibria," Transportation Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(3), pages 258-281, August.
18. Huo, Jinbiao & Liu, Zhiyuan & Chen, Jingxu & Cheng, Qixiu & Meng, Qiang, 2023. "Bayesian optimization for congestion pricing problems: A general framework and its instability," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 1-28.
19. Michael Patriksson & R. Tyrrell Rockafellar, 2003. "Sensitivity Analysis of Aggregated Variational Inequality Problems, with Application to Traffic Equilibria," Transportation Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 56-68, February.
20. Ma, Rui & Ban, Xuegang (Jeff) & Szeto, W.Y., 2017. "Emission modeling and pricing on single-destination dynamic traffic networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 255-283.
21. Ding, Hongxing & Yang, Hai & Xu, Hongli & Li, Ting, 2023. "Status quo-dependent user equilibrium model with adaptive value of time," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 77-90.
22. Fan, Wenbo & Jiang, Xinguo & Erdogan, Sevgi & Sun, Yanshuo, 2016. "Modeling and evaluating FAIR highway performance and policy options," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 156-168.

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